CNC Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:CNC Specs for the Lathe 225
Description:This class identifies common specifications of CNC lathes and describes the various features and options available on different machines.
Prerequisites: 300110  300120  300140 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:18
Language:English, Spanish, Chinese
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Intro to Specs and Features
  • Interior Lathe Specifications
  • Lathe Capacity
  • Spindle Performance: Spindle Speed
  • Spindle Performance: Horsepower and Torque
  • Spindle Orientation
  • Rapid Traverse, Cutting Feed Rate, and Maximum Thrust
  • Turret and Tools
  • Positioning and Repeatability
  • Coolant
  • Machine Dimensions and Power Requirements
  • Features: Capability
  • Features: Part Complexity
  • Features: Enhanced Workpiece Handling
  • Features: Tool Tracking and Tool Life
  • Features: Setup and QC
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Distinguish among mill specifications, features, and options.
  • Distinguish between specifications that describe the interior of a lathe.
  • Distinguish among interior lathe specifications.
  • Describe the importance of spindle speed for a lathe.
  • Describe the relationship between horsepower and torque.
  • Distinguish between a vertical and horizontal lathe.
  • Describe the importance of rapid axis travels and thrust.
  • Distinguish among lathe tool specifications.
  • Describe the relationships among accuracy, positioning, and repeatability.
  • Distinguish among a lathe's coolant specifications.
  • Explain machine dimensions.
  • Identify lathe features that directly affect machining capability.
  • Identify lathe features that directly affect the complexity of parts.
  • Identify lathe features that directly improve workpiece handling.
  • Identify lathe features that directly improve the use and maintenance of cutting tools.
  • Identify lathe options that directly improve job setup and quality control.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
accuracy The difference between a measurement reading and the true value of that measurement.
additional axes A feature available on most CNC machines that significantly increases the ability of a machine to create complex parts.
automatic tool changer A CNC machine feature that automatically changes tools during a machining operation.
axial path A tool approach that runs parallel to the axis of a workpiece. Also called the parallel orientation.
axis travel A specification that indicates the length that a lathe tool may move along a specific axis.
bar stock Raw material purchased from metal manufacturers in the form of long bars. Bar stock may be round, square, or hexagonal.
big bore capability A lathe feature that provides both larger bar capacity and greater power to an existing machine.
capacity Maximum values, usually related to workpiece sizes, that may be accommodated by a CNC lathe.
chuck size A specification that describes the dimensions of the lathe chuck.
coolant pressure A specification that indicates the amount of pressure the coolant pump exerts during machining. Machines with aggressive coolant pressure may experience longer tool life and superior workpiece finish.
coolant pump motor A specification that indicates the performance rating of the machine component that controls coolant output. Coolant pump motors are rated in horsepower.
coolant volume A CNC machine specification that indicates how much coolant the pump can move in a given time. Coolant volume is measured in gallons per minute.
cross slide The device supported by the carriage that positions the turret toward and away from the workpiece
cubic feet per minute A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Cubic feet per minute is abbreviated cfm.
cutting feed rate The rate at which the cutting tool and the workpiece move in relation to one another.
cycle time The time it takes to make one part.
deep-hole drilling A drilling operation with an excessive depth-to-diameter ratio. Successful deep hole drilling involves avoiding problems with drill deviation, removing chips, and applying coolant to the cutting edge.
feature A machine component designed to increase machine capability. Lathes may have features built into the machine or may have them added to the original configuration of the machine as options.
footprint A specification that indicates the amount of floor space a machine occupies.
gage A device used to measure part dimensions after a part is made.
gang-type tooling A type of tooling on the CNC lathe in which tools are mounted directly to a cross slide. The tools are never indexed but are affixed to the slide, which repositions to enable each tool to cut parts
hertz A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second. Hertz is abbreviated Hz.
high-pressure coolant A lathe feature that propels coolant to the cutting edge of a tool with great force.
high-speed spindle A lathe spindle that rotates at very high speeds, typically around 7,000 rpm.
horizontal lathe A turning machine in which the spindle axis is parallel to the ground. Horizontal lathes are the most common shop floor lathes.
horizontal spindle A lathe spindle with an axis that is oriented parallel to the shop floor.
horsepower A unit of power used to describe machine strength. One horsepower equals 746 watts.
indexing time A specification that indicates the amount of time needed for a lathe turret to index from one tool to the next.
kilovolt amperes A unit used to describe the power requirements of a machine. Kilovolt amperes is abbreviated kVA.
length-to-diameter ratio The measurement relationship between the length and diameter of a part. If a part has a 4:1 length-to-diameter ratio, then the part's length is 4 times the measurement of the diameter.
liters per minute A measurement of the flow of a gas or liquid. Liters per minute is abbreviated lpm.
live tooling Power-driven cutting tools, such as end mills and drills, that are held in the turret of a lathe. Live tools can perform machining operations off the part centerline while the workpiece is held in the spindle.
machine weight A specification that indicates the weight of a machine. Machine weight is critical when load limits exist in a shop.
maximum bar capacity A specification that indicates the largest size bar stock the machine can hold.
maximum part size A specification that indicates the maximum dimensions of a workpiece that a lathe is capable of machining.
maximum swing A lathe specification that indicates the largest diameter of a part that can clear the cross slide or the ways.
maximum thrust A specification that indicates the amount of force, measured in pounds or newtons, that a lathe may exert horizontally.
maximum turning diameter A specification that indicates the distance a lathe tool can cut a workpiece in a radial path perpendicular to the spindle axis.
maximum turning length A specification that indicates the distance a lathe tool can cut a workpiece in an axial path parallel to the spindle axis.
one atmosphere A unit of pressure. One bar is equal to the sea-level pressure of Earth's atmosphere.
option A machine component or addition designed to increase machine capability. Options are extra features that are added to the original configuration of a machine.
parallel Two lines or axes that are equidistant from each other at all points along their length, and thus never intersect. On a horizontal lathe, the spindle is parallel to the shop floor.
perpendicular Two lines or axes that meet at right angles. On a vertical lathe, the spindle is perpendicular to the shop floor.
positioning For a CNC machine, the measure of how well the machine can place its tools to a desired location.
pounds per square inch A measurement of pressure. Pounds per square inch is abbreviated psi.
probe A device on the lathe used to quickly determine inspection and quality control variables during machining.
programmable C-axis A lathe feature that offers full programmable control over the rotational spindle axis. The C-axis describes rotation around the Z-axis.
quick-change tooling A type of tooling that involves tools that are quick-released and preset off the lathe to save time in changeovers.
radial path A tool approach that runs perpendicular to the axis of a workpiece. Also called the perpendicular orientation.
rapid traverse The rate at which the tool turret moves before and after machining and in between cuts. Rapid traverse is the fastest movement of the tool turret and is measured in inches per minute.
repeatability For a CNC machine, the measure of how well the machine can sustain its positioning over time.
revolutions per minute A unit of measurement that indicates the number of revolutions a machine component makes in one minute. Revolutions per minute is abbreviated rpm.
specification A description of the essential physical and technical properties of a machine. Specs are the principle indicator of machine capability.
spindle orientation The manner in which the spindle is configured on a lathe. Spindles may be oriented vertically or horizontally.
steady rest platform A lathe feature that provides support for longer workpieces during machining.
stick tooling The most common tool style on a lathe on which the tools are mounted in a turret that indexes the tools.
sub-spindle The source of workpiece rotation that is found opposite the headstock and main spindle. The sub-spindle is also called the pick-off or back spindle.
surface feet per minute A measurement of speed describing the distance that the tool tip travels in one minute. It is used for operations requiring an adjustment of spindle speed as the tool moves toward or away from the centerline. Surface feet per minute is abbreviated as sfm or fpm.
surface feet per minute The circumferential speed of a workpiece as it is rotated in a lathe spindle. Also known as surface foot speed.
tailstock The component located at the end of a lathe opposite the headstock that supports the end of longer workpieces.
tank capacity A specification that indicates the maximum amount of coolant that a lathe may hold in its original configuration.
tapered shank tooling A type of tooling common on the machining center in which the toolholder is long, narrow, and shaped like a cone.
tool capacity A specification that indicates the maximum number of tools that a lathe can hold in its original configuration.
tool pre-setter A device on the lathe used to quickly determine tool geometry offsets on the X- and Z-axis. The tool tip contacts surfaces on the probe, which instantly records the turret position in the offset screen.
tool size A specification that indicates the maximum possible tool dimensions that a lathe turret can support.
tool style A CNC machine specification that indicates the type of tooling used on a machine.
tool tracking A lathe feature that catalogues all tool usage in an effort to extend tool life.
torque The ability of a machine to exert a torsional force at a particular speed. The torque of a machine will vary across its speed range.
turret The component of a lathe that holds a number of cutting tools. The turret rotates to place tools in the cutting position.
twin spindle A spindle configuration on the CNC lathe in which two equally powered spindles sit opposite each other in the work envelope.
vertical lathe A turning machine in which the spindle axis is perpendicular to the ground. Vertical lathes are ideal for turning excessively large and heavy workpieces.
vertical spindle A lathe spindle with an axis that is oriented perpendicular to the shop floor.
ways Two precisely measured, parallel tracks that support and guide the movement of the carriage and cross slide.
working envelope The interior work space of a lathe where actual machining takes place.