Safety for Lifting Devices 211

"Safety for Lifting Devices" covers the different pieces of lifting equipment that may be used in the workplace and the safest ways to work with those pieces of equipment. Overhead cranes and hoists are used for lifting heavy loads. Other lifting devices include slings, portable lifting stands, gantry cranes, and derricks. Extra equipment is necessary to secure loads to lifting devices. This equipment must be inspected daily for excessive wear and damage. Understanding how to maintain and operate lifting devices will allow future operators and employers to work with lifting devices safely and effectively. After taking this class, students will be able to describe the proper steps necessary to safely lift and transport materials within the work environment.

Class Details

Class Name:
Safety for Lifting Devices 211
Description:
"Safety for Lifting Devices" covers the different pieces of lifting equipment that may be used in the workplace and the safest ways to work with those pieces of equipment. Overhead cranes and hoists are used for lifting heavy loads. Other lifting devices include slings, portable lifting stands, gantry cranes, and derricks. Extra equipment is necessary to secure loads to lifting devices. This equipment must be inspected daily for excessive wear and damage. Understanding how to maintain and operate lifting devices will allow future operators and employers to work with lifting devices safely and effectively. After taking this class, students will be able to describe the proper steps necessary to safely lift and transport materials within the work environment.
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Intermediate
Number of Lessons:
20
Related 1.0 Class:
Safety for Lifting Devices 135

Class Outline

  • The Importance of Lifting Device Safety
  • Types of LIfting Devices for Material Handling
  • Slings
  • Slings: Safe Operating Practices
  • Slings Review
  • Hoists
  • Hoists: Safe Operating Practices
  • Portable Lifting Stands
  • Overhead and Gantry Cranes
  • Overhead and Gantry Cranes: Safe Operating Practices
  • Derricks
  • Hoists and Cranes Review
  • Lifting Equipment Safety: Chains, Cables, and Motors
  • Lifting Equipment Safety: Hooks and Eyebolts
  • Lifting Equipment Safety: Clamps, Magnets, and Baskets
  • Inspections for Lifting Devices
  • Conducting Inspections for Lifting Devices
  • Operational and Rated Load Testing
  • Employer and Employee Responsibilities
  • Lifting Equipment Safety Review

Objectives

  • Describe the importance of lifting device safety in the workplace.
  • Identify lifting devices commonly used for material handling.
  • Describe slings.
  • Describe safe operating practices for slings.
  • Describe hoists.
  • Describe safe operating practices for hoists.
  • Describe portable lifting stands.
  • Distinguish between overhead and gantry cranes.
  • Describe safe operating practices for overhead and gantry cranes.
  • Describe derricks.
  • Describe unsafe chains, cables, and motors.
  • Describe the safety features of hooks and eyebolts.
  • Describe the safety hazards of using clamps, magnets, and baskets.
  • Describe inspections required by OSHA for lifting devices.
  • Distinguish between operational and rated load tests.
  • Describe the employer and employee roles in maintaining a safe workplace.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
alloy steel A steel containing another material that is added intentionally in order to improve certain properties of the metal. Alloy steel is used to make chains because of its strength and durability.
alloy steel chain slings Metal slings consisting of a master hook, chain links, and sling hooks. Alloy steel chain slings are durable and used for lifting heavy loads.
American National Standards Institute ANSI. A private, non-profit membership organization that administers and coordinates voluntary standards and systems in the U.S. private sector. ANSI gives facilities safety codes for overhead and gantry cranes.
American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM. The organization that develops standards for industry, government, and the environment to make products safer and more cost-effective. ASTM requires slings to have proof tests performed in accordance with their standards to ensure safety.
baskets Lifting devices that are used to pick up loads without eyebolts, hooks, or fasteners. Baskets are used with tier-tote chains that connect on the sides of the basket.
baskets Lifting devices used to pick up loads without eyebolts, hooks, or fasteners. Baskets are used with tier-tote chains, which connect on the sides of the basket.
bolts Cylindrically-shaped, threaded devices used for fastening parts. Bolts usually have blunt ends and are matched with nuts.
boom A structure on a crane or derrick that can swivel or pivot around a fixed location. A boom is necessary for lifting with hoists and ropes.
boom The lifting arm of a crane or derrick that has its lower end hinged or pivoted at a fixed location on the mast. Booms are necessary for lifting with hoists and ropes.
braces A device that steadies or supports other components. Braces are usually made of a type of sturdy, heavy metal and can be used instead of guys to secure a derrick crane.
bridge The part of the crane that carries the trolley. Bridges are beam-like structures that can support weight.
bridges Parts of cranes that carry the trolley. Bridges consist of girders, trucks, end ties, footwalks, and the drive mechanism that carries the trolley.
cables A rope made of wire or other materials that is used for heavy work like lifting. Cables, in conjunction with motors, are sometimes used to power and support lifting mechanisms.
cantilever gantry cranes A hoisting crane with a long beam that is fixed only at one end along which a hoisting trolley moves. Cantilever cranes can extend on one or both sides.
clamping devices Lifting devices used to pick up loads without eyebolts, hooks, or fasteners. Clamping devices attach directly to loads.
clamps Lifting devices with teeth that use pressure to secure objects. Clamps are used for lifting loads that do not have eyebolts.
clearance A specified amount of space or distance between two objects or areas. Clearance must be maintained above and around cranes.
cost per ton The price of a product per ton of weight. The low cost per ton of wire rope slings makes them one of the most commonly used lifting devices.
cranes Lifting devices that move loads vertically and horizontally. Cranes can be fixed or mobile and can be driven manually or powered.
cranes Lifting devices used for the lifting and lowering and horizontal movement of a load with a hoisting mechanism. Cranes can be fixed or mobile and can be driven manually or powered.
derrick A lifting device with a mast held at the head with guys or braces. Derricks come with or without a boom for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes.
derricks Lifting devices that are fixed in their location and are characterized by a movable mast. Derricks come with or without a boom for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes.
diameter The distance from one edge of a circle to the opposite edge that passes through the center.The size of the diameter of a sling is determined by the amount of stress that will be placed on the sling.
drums Cylindrical objects with flat ends that extend beyond the center's diameter. Drums are used to store and spool rope.
electromagnetic device An object made magnetic by an electric current. Electromagnetic devices used for lifting require a charged battery.
eyebolts Threaded bolts with a forged hole or loop at one end. There are two types of eyebolts: standard and shoulder.
forklifts A small industrial truck used for carrying, lifting, and stacking materials. Forklifts contain a pair of forks used for lifting and transporting heavy loads.
frequent inspections An inspection that occurs at daily or monthly intervals. Frequent inspections are not as thorough as periodic inspections.
frequent inspections Inspections that occur at daily or monthly intervals. The occurrence of frequent inspections depends on the degree of wear, deterioration, and malfunction of critical components.
fuel lines Gasoline or diesel mechanisms that supply power to the lifting device. A fuel line often takes the form of a delivery hose.
gantry cranes Cranes with bridges supported on two or more legs running on fixed, parallel rails. Gantry cranes are similar to overhead cranes.
gantry cranes Cranes with bridges supported on two or more legs. On a gantry crane, the legs run parallel to one another on fixed rails.
grabs Lifting devices that use tines or teeth to pick up loads. Grabs are either mechanical, hydraulic, or motorized.
grabs Lifting devices with tines or teeth that are used to pick up loads. Grabs are mechanical, hydraulic, or motorized.
grade A category, rank, or level of quality. The grade of a sling appears on its identification tag.
grapples Hooks or claws used to pick up loads. Grapples can move a wide variety of heavy loads.
guarded The state of something which is inaccessible due to fixed, interlocked, adjusting, or self-adjusting guards installed. Moving parts on hoists and other lifting devices must be guarded.
guys Ropes or cables that are used to steady or secure something. A guy may be used to secure a mast or another component in position.
hoist A device for lifting and lowering loads by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. A hoist may be part of a crane.
hoist reeving A system in which the hoist travels around drums and sheaves. A wire rope reeving system provides a system with the ability to hoist heavy loads effectively.
hoists A device for lifting and lowering loads by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. A hoist may be part of a crane.
hoists Devices that lift and lower loads by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. Hoists exert vertical forces to function.
hoistways The opening or passage through or along which a hoist will travel. A hoistway must be painted so that it is clearly seen by employees.
hook Lifting devices that are curved and structured to slip through a component used to lift a load. Hooks are usually used with chains, hoists, and slings.
hooks Lifting devices that are curved and structured to slip through a component used to lift a load. Hooks are usually used with chains, hoists, and slings.
hydraulic Power created by the motion and pressure of fluids. Hydraulic systems work when force is applied at one point and then transmitted to another by way of fluid.
hydraulic-powered boom A lifting arm powered by the motion and pressure of fluids. A hydraulic-powered boom is suited for multiple lifting heights and capacities.
initial inspection The first inspection of a new or modified lifting device. All critical components are examined in an initial inspection.
J-hook A hook in the shape of the letter "J." J-hooks are designed for use with chains, hoists, and slings.
jib hoists Hoists with lifting arms for added length when lifting specific loads. The jib may be in line with the lifting arm or offset at various angles.
lifting devices Devices that carry objects from one location to another. Lifting devices include cranes, hoists, and forklifts.
lifting medium A hoist that provides the vertical raising and lowering of a load. Wire rope and chain are commonly used lifting media.
load ratings The maximum load for which a crane or hoist is designed. The load rating is determined by the manufacturer and displayed on the device.
load shifting The change in the distribution of the weight of a load or objects that make up a load. Load shifting causes the load to become unbalanced and may result in damage to objects or personnel.
load-bearing surface A surface that supports weight. The wider the load-bearing surface is, the more weight it can support.
loads The overall forces that are applied to materials or structures. Loads, with regards to lifting devices, are typically the materials or items that are being lifted.
lug A large nut that mates with a heavy bolt. A lug can be used to mount a hoist.
magnetic field A detected force that exists around a magnet or electrical field. Magnetic forces work within a magnetic field.
magnets Electromagnetic devices that have the property of attracting iron. Magnets produce a magnetic field external to themselves.
marking A tag permanently affixed to the sling stating the size, grade, rated capacity, and reach of the sling. A marking is also called a sling identification tag.
mast The upright structure of a derrick. The mast is responsible for lifting and bearing the weight of the load.
masts The upright structure of a derrick. The mast is responsible for lifting and bearing the weight of the load.
metal mesh slings Slings with fabric made of chain and cross rods that connect the metal spirals to make a complete fabric. Metal mesh slings are recommended for lifting hot and sharp objects.
motors A machine that converts one form of energy, such as electricity, into mechanical energy or motion. Motors, in conjunction with cables, are sometimes used to power and support lifting mechanisms.
natural fiber rope slings Rope slings composed of fibers that occur in nature. Natural fiber rope slings are used to handle fragile loads.
nylon A thermoplastic polymer used as a resin for traditional composites. There are many types of nylon, and all nylons are strong and flexible.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA. A government agency dedicated to reducing injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. OSHA sets standards to maintain accident-free workplaces.
operation type The type of power provided to the lifting device. Lifting devices are powered electrically, manually, or by air pressure.
operational test A test required by OSHA and performed prior to the initial use of a lifting device. The operational test ensures the main components and functions are safe and in compliance with OSHA standards.
overhead cranes Cranes with hoists that travel along fixed, overhead runways. Overhead cranes have a bridge and a wheeled trolley that travels across the bridge horizontally.
overhead cranes Cranes with hoists that travel along fixed, overhead runways. Overhead cranes have a bridge and a wheeled trolley that travels across the bridge horizontally.
overhead hoists Hoisting mechanisms used with overhead lifting devices, such as cranes. Overhead hoists lift and move parts over long distances.
periodic inspection An inspection that occurs at monthly intervals. The frequency of periodic inspections depends on the degree of exposure to wear and deterioration and malfunction of critical components.
periodic inspections Inspections that occur at monthly intervals depending on the degree of exposure to wear and deterioration and malfunction of critical components. Periodic inspections are more thorough than frequent inspections.
periodic inspections Inspections that occur at monthly intervals. Periodic inspections depend on the wear, deterioration, and malfunction of critical components.
pneumatic Power created by the motion and control of gas, often air, under pressure. Pneumatic motors can power hoists.
polyester A type of thermoset that is commonly combined with other polymers for numerous commercial uses. Polyester is light, strong, and resistant to weather and corrosion.
polypropylene A thermoplastic polymer used as a resin for traditional composites. Polypropylene is economical, versatile, and very lightweight.
portable cantilever hoists A lifting device with a hoisting mechanism and a beam that extends beyond the runway structure. A portable cantilever hoist can be manually moved to the load for lifting.
portable crane hoists Mobile and compact lifting devices with hoisting mechanisms. Portable crane hoists are suited for multiple lifting applications in confined or obstructed spaces.
portable hoists Also called portable lifting stands. A mobile lifting device used for lifting in confined areas. Portable lifting stands usually come equipped with a boom for use at multiple lifting heights.
portable lifting stands A compact structure that is mobile and uses a sling to lift loads. Portable lifting stands are used when obstructions prevent the use of other overhead devices.
portable lifting stands Also called portable hoists. A mobile lifting device used for lifting in confined areas. Portable lifting stands usually come equipped with a boom for use at multiple lifting heights.
preventive maintenance A program required by OSHA and based on the manufacturer's recommendations for adjustment and repair of the lifting device and components. The employer is responsible for developing and enforcing the preventive maintenance program.
proof test A nondestructive tension test performed by the sling manufacturer or an equivalent entity. A proof test verifies construction and workmanship of a sling.
rated capacity The manufacturer's guidelines for how much weight a sling can safely support. The rated capacity of a sling appears on its identification tag.
rated capacity The manufacturer's guidelines for how much weight something can bear. The rated capacity of a hoist is stamped on it.
rated load test A test required by OSHA and performed prior to the initial use of a lifting device that assesses the device's ability to move a specific amount of weight. The rated load test assesses the load rating for a device that is determined by the manufacturer.
rated load test A test required by OSHA and performed prior to the initial use of a lifting device to test the load rating. The rated load test is performed to understand a system's behavior under different load conditions.
reach The effective length of an alloy steel chain sling measured from top to bottom. Reach is indicated on a sling identification tag.
ring A round link that is used to form some types of chains. Rings are often made from hardened alloy steel.
rivets Non-threaded fasteners that consist of a shank and a head made of deformable material. Rivets are inserted through holes and are hammered into a matching head on the other side of the part.
roller load chains A set of connected, metal links with spaces designed for lifting. Roller load chains are a type of lifting medium.
rope reeving A hoisting mechanism in which rope travels around drums and sheaves. Rope reeving is used with hooks, baskets, grabs, grapples, and magnets.
runways An assembly of rails, beams, girders, brackets, and framework on which a crane or trolley travels. Runways are stationary.
semigantry cranes Gantry cranes with one end of the bridge supported by one or more legs that run on a fixed rail or runway. On a semigantry crane, the other end of the bridge is supported by a truck running on an elevated rail or runway.
setup The necessary preparation of tooling and fixturing that occurs on a machine before a process is executed. Setup includes preparing machines and collecting paperwork, tools, and materials.
sheaves The freely moving wheel that is part of a moveable pulley. The sheave usually contains a groove to hold a rope or chain.
shoulder eyebolt An eyebolt used for increased strength when side forces impact the load during lifting. Shoulder eyebolts have a flange or shoulder mounted to them to keep from sinking into the surface to which they are bolted.
sling identification tag A tag permanently affixed to the sling stating the size, grade, rated capacity, and reach of the sling. A sling identification tag is also called a marking.
slings A loop of material that connects a load to a lifting device. Slings can be made of natural or synthetic materials in the form of chain, wire, metal mesh, natural, and synthetic materials.
slings Loops of material that connect the load to the lifting device. Slings can be made of chain, wire, metal mesh, natural and synthetic materials.
spreader bars Devices usually formed of adjustable pipe used to distribute weight while lifting wide frames. Spreader bars are usually constructed of metal.
standard eyebolt An eyebolt that has no wide edges around its base. The standard eyebolt is used only for vertical lifting.
steel chains Chains used for general-purpose lifting because of their strength and durability. Steel chains are usually made from alloy steel.
storage bridge cranes A gantry crane whose bridge is supported on one or more legs. Storage bridge cranes are usually used for bulk storage of material.
stress A force that attempts to deform an object. The amount of stress determines the size of the diameter of a sling to be used to handle a load.
suspension type The mounting or method used to support a hoist. Common suspension types include hook-mounted, lug-mounted, trolley-mounted, and wall-mounted.
synthetic fiber rope slings Rope slings that are composed of manufactured fibers. Synthetic fiber rope slings are used to handle fragile loads.
synthetic web slings Slings made of a mesh constructed of manufactured materials. Synthetic web slings come with different fabric constructions.
threads Long, spiraling grooves on a workpiece. Threads allow eyebolts to securely fasten to a load.
three-strand construction Three strands of fiber or synthetic rope that are right-laid and hand-twisted together. Three-strand construction provides increased strength.
tier-tote chains A chain used for lifting that attaches to two sides of a basket or object. Tier-tote chains used with baskets connect on two sides.
trolley The structure that is attached to the bridge and holds the hoist. The trolley carries the hoist along the bridge.
trolley The unit that travels horizontally on the bridge rails of a crane. A trolley carries the hoisting mechanism.
wall cranes Cranes with or without trolleys. The wall crane is supported by a side wall or columns of a building.
welded link chains Chains whose links are connected by a weld. Welded link chains are often used as lifting medium.
wire rope Rope made from strands of steel or iron. Wire rope is used for jobs that require the rope to be extremely strong and resistant to abrasion.
wire rope slings Slings composed of rope made from strands of steel or iron. Wire rope slings are the most commonly used type of slings.