Powered Industrial Truck Safety 221

"Powered Industrial Truck Safety" provides an overview of safety topics related to forklifts and other PITs. OSHA has many standards surrounding the use of PITs in the workplace for operators, non-operators, attended vehicles, and unattended vehicles. OSHA also has detailed training requirements for PIT operators. To safely operate a PIT, operators must understand basic principles of stability, including the concepts of a fulcrum and centers of gravity. Operators must also be aware of the weight and shape of loads and what individual vehicles are capable of handling.

Powered industrial trucks are a common source of workplace accidents, so a strong knowledge of how to safely operate and work with PITs is crucial for any environment where they are used. PIT accidents can lead to property and inventory damage as well as employee injury. Operators should know how to avoid OSHA violations and how to handle a load without tipping the vehicle.

Class Details

Class Name:
Powered Industrial Truck Safety 221
Description:
"Powered Industrial Truck Safety" provides an overview of safety topics related to forklifts and other PITs. OSHA has many standards surrounding the use of PITs in the workplace for operators, non-operators, attended vehicles, and unattended vehicles. OSHA also has detailed training requirements for PIT operators. To safely operate a PIT, operators must understand basic principles of stability, including the concepts of a fulcrum and centers of gravity. Operators must also be aware of the weight and shape of loads and what individual vehicles are capable of handling.

Powered industrial trucks are a common source of workplace accidents, so a strong knowledge of how to safely operate and work with PITs is crucial for any environment where they are used. PIT accidents can lead to property and inventory damage as well as employee injury. Operators should know how to avoid OSHA violations and how to handle a load without tipping the vehicle.
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Intermediate
Number of Lessons:
24
Related 1.0 Class:
Powered Industrial Truck Safety 210

Class Outline

  • Powered Industrial Trucks
  • Powered Industrial Truck Regulations
  • Powered Industrial Truck Types and Classifications
  • Training Requirements
  • PIT Basics
  • Maintenance Requirements
  • Traveling Requirements
  • Attended Vehicle Requirements: Operation
  • Attended Vehicle Requirements: Pedestrians
  • Requirements for Unattended Vehicles
  • Loading Requirements
  • PIT Requirements
  • Principles of Stability
  • Weight and Distance
  • The Stability Triangle and Center of Gravity
  • Vertical Stability Line and Load Center
  • Vertical Stability Line Movements
  • Longitudinal Stability
  • Balance and Stability
  • Calculating Longitudinal Stability
  • Lateral Stability
  • Maintaining Lateral Stability
  • Dynamic Stability
  • Final Review

Objectives

  • Describe powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe regulations for operating powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe the primary classifications of powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe OSHA’s training requirements for powered industrial truck operators.
  • Describe OSHA’s maintenance requirements for powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe OSHA’s traveling requirements for powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe attended vehicle operation requirements that protect operators.
  • Describe attended vehicle operation requirements that protect pedestrians.
  • Define unattended vehicle. List operation requirements for unattended vehicles.
  • Describe OSHA'S primary loading requirements for PITs.
  • Identify the factors that influence vehicle stability.
  • Describe how distance and weight both affect stability.
  • Define stability triangle. Explain center of gravity.
  • Identify the vertical stability line and the load center.
  • Describe the relationship between the vertical stability line and the load center.
  • Describe how to maintain longitudinal stability.
  • Calculate maximum allowable load weight for maintaining longitudinal stability.
  • Describe how to maintain lateral stability.
  • Describe how to maintain dynamic stability.

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
agriculture Industries and occupations that involve the growing, raising, and harvesting of food. Agriculture includes farming and ranching.
aisle sideloaders A vehicle designed to transport loads through narrow spaces, such as warehouses. Aisle sideloaders are a type of powered industrial truck.
attended vehicles Any running powered industrial truck with an operator either on board or within a given number of feet.
balance scale A scale that uses two platforms on either side of a fulcrum to compare the weights of objects. Balance scales are also known as balances, beam balances, or laboratory balances.
capacity The maximum amount of volume or weight that can be safely contained or handled. Powered industrial truck capacity indicates the maximum load size.
capacity plate An informational metal plate affixed to a powered industrial truck by the manufacturer. Capacity plates, also called data plates, contain information such as the weight of the vehicle.
center of gravity COG. The area of an object at which all the surrounding weight is equal. The center of gravity is the point at which an object is in balance.
combined center of gravity On a powered industrial truck, the point at which the vehicle weight and the load weight combine. When the combined center of gravity is within the vehicle's stability triangle, the PIT will not tip.
counterbalance To balance one weight with another. Counterbalancing a powered industrial truck increases its stability.
counterweight A weight that is used to counterbalance a heavy load. The weight of a forklift acts as a counterbalance to its load, but additional weight may be added for greater counterbalancing.
data plate An informational metal plate affixed to a powered industrial truck by the manufacturer. Data plates, also called capacity plates, contain information such as the weight of the vehicle.
distribution The positioning or spreading of the weight of a load over the area that it occupies. Distribution helps to determine stability in powered industrial trucks.
dynamic stability The ability of a powered industrial truck to stay upright while in motion. When the vehicle is moving, various forces can act on the load and vehicle to make it less stable and more likely to tip over.
electric-powered industrial trucks Any powered industrial truck that uses an engine powered by electricity rather than gasoline. Electric-powered industrial trucks use large batteries as their power source.
Fair Labor Standards Act FLSA. The federal law which sets wage, work hours, and child labor standards for employees. The Fair Labor Standards Act is also known as the Wage and Hours Bill.
flash points The lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite. Liquids with low flash points pose the greatest fire danger.
fork extensions A forklift attachment that increases the length of the forks. Fork extensions are used to handle large or oddly-shaped loads.
forklift A vehicle that has two prongs on the front for lifting pallets of material. Forklifts are one of the most common types of powered industrial truck.
fulcrum The pivot point of a lever, or the point around which an object turns, tilts, or moves. The fulcrum of a forklift is generally its front axle.
inch pounds A unit used for measuring work, power, or torque. Inch pounds is abbreviated as in-lb or in.lb.
internal combustion engine-powered Any powered industrial truck that uses an engine which creates energy from a petroleum fuel. Internal combustion engine powered trucks run on gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, or diesel fuel.
lateral stability The ability of a powered industrial truck not to tip over sideways. A load that is out of balance or on an uneven traveling surface can affect lateral stability.
lateral stability The ability of a powered industrial truck to not tip over sideways. A load that is out of balance or on an uneven traveling surface can affect lateral stability.
liquefied petroleum gas A fuel made from propane, butane, or a mixture of both. Liquified petroleum gas may also be called autogas or auto propane.
load The amount of force or pressure exerted on an object. The load of a PIT includes the weight of the objects it carries.
load backrest extension The vertical portion of the lifting mechanism of a powered industrial truck which raises and lowers along with the forks. The load backrest extension prevents the load from falling backward onto the driver.
load center The horizontal space that exists between the edge of a forklift's load and its vertical stability line. The load center indicates the distance of the load from the vehicle's center of gravity.
loads The amount of force or pressure exerted on an object. The load of a PIT includes the weight of the objects it carries.
longitudinal stability The ability of a powered industrial truck to resist tipping forward. A PIT generally has longitudinal stability when vehicle weight exceeds load weight.
manifest A list of goods or materials being transported by truck, train, or other means. A manifest usually includes details such as the size, weight, and contents of the objects or substances.
mast The vertical portion of a forklift's lifting mechanism that raises and lowers the forks and load. Masts may also tilt backward and forward to assist in lifting and depositing loads.
momentum Mass multiplied by velocity, or the combination of weight and motion. Excessive momentum can cause a vehicle to tip.
Newton meters The metric unit used to measure work, power, and torque. The Newton-meter is abbreviated as N-m.
noncombustible Not able to catch fire or explode. Noncombustible materials pose no risk of fire.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA. A government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Labor that sets the standards for working conditions in the United States. OSHA ensures that employees work in safe and healthy environments.
overhead guard The upper portion of a powered industrial truck that serves as a type of roof or rollbar. The overhead guard protects the operator from falling loads.
pallet A low, portable platform on which goods and materials are stacked for storage or transportation. Pallets are also known as skids.
pallet lifts A vehicle used to raise or lower pallets of objects or materials. Pallet lifts are a type of powered industrial truck.
pallets A low, portable platform on which goods and materials are stacked for storage or transportation. Pallets are also known as skids.
pedestrians Any person who is on foot rather than using a vehicle. Drivers of powered industrial trucks must be aware of and avoid pedestrians.
pivot pin The point on the rear axle of a forklift around which the wheels move to change the vehicle's direction. The pivot pin transfers the motion of the steering wheel to the direction of the forklift's travel.
powered industrial truck PIT. Any mobile, power-propelled truck, other than a construction or passenger vehicle, that is capable of carrying, pushing, pulling, lifting, or stacking materials. Forklifts are a common type of PIT.
rated capacity The manufacturer's guidelines for how much weight a powered industrial truck can safely carry. A PIT must never carry a load that exceeds the rated capacity.
rated capacity The manufacturer's guidelines for how much weight a powered industrial truck can safely carry. Rated capacity is printed onto a capacity plate, which is stamped on the frame of the PIT.
solvents A chemical material used to dissolve another material. Solvents are often used to dissolve surface contaminants for cleaning purposes.
stability The ability of a powered industrial truck to remain upright. Stability is the most important factor in avoiding accidents.
stability triangle The area on a forklift between its three points of suspension that contains its center of gravity. The load must be suspended within the stability triangle in order for the forklift not to tip.
standard load center measurement Half the distance from the edge of a forklift's forks or platform to the center. The standard load center measurement of a standard size forklift is 24 inches (0.61 m).
three-point suspension system A method of balancing or supporting a device or object at three different locations. A forklift has a three-point suspension system.
track The distance between the wheels on the same axle of a powered industrial truck. Track helps to determine stability.
unattended vehicle Any powered industrial truck that does not have an operator on board or within proximity. There are specific rules governing unattended vehicles, including how they should be secured.
vehicle height The total vertical dimension of the vehicle and mast at its highest extension. Vehicle height is the maximum vertical measurement of a PIT.
vertical stability line An imaginary line drawn through the vehicle's center of gravity and the load's center of gravity on a powered industrial truck. The position of the vertical stability line helps to determine vehicle stability.
wheel base The distance between the centerlines of the front and rear wheels of a powered industrial truck. The wheel base helps to determine stability.