Introduction to Physical Properties 101

Intro to Physical Properties provides an overview of manufacturing materials and their physical properties, including thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties. This class also introduces users to volumetric characteristics, such as mass, weight, and density. Physical properties determine how a material will react to moisture, heat, electricity, and other factors. In order to choose the best tooling or raw material for an application, manufacturers must understand the physical properties of key metals, plastics, and other materials. After taking this course, users will be able to identify and describe key physical properties and their value in a manufacturing setting.

Class Details

Class Name:
Introduction to Physical Properties 101
Description:
Intro to Physical Properties provides an overview of manufacturing materials and their physical properties, including thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties. This class also introduces users to volumetric characteristics, such as mass, weight, and density. Physical properties determine how a material will react to moisture, heat, electricity, and other factors. In order to choose the best tooling or raw material for an application, manufacturers must understand the physical properties of key metals, plastics, and other materials. After taking this course, users will be able to identify and describe key physical properties and their value in a manufacturing setting.
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Beginner
Number of Lessons:
16
Related 1.0 Classes:
Intro to Materials 100, Physical Properties of Metals 130

Class Outline

  • Manufacturing Materials
  • Materials and Properties
  • Reviewing Materials
  • Physical and Mechanical Properties
  • Internal Structures
  • Reviewing the Parts of an Atom
  • The Role of Physical Properties
  • Mass and Density
  • Electrical Properties
  • Reviewing Volumetric and Electrical Properties
  • Magnetic Properties
  • Thermal Properties
  • Thermal Expansion and Thermal Stress
  • Chemical Properties and Weathering
  • Reviewing Thermal and Chemical Properties
  • Understanding Physical Properties

Objectives

  • List the four types of manufacturing materials.
  • Describe metals, plastics, ceramics, and composites.
  • Define physical properties and mechanical properties.
  • Identify the parts of an atom.
  • Describe how physical properties relate to manufacturing applications.
  • Describe volumetric properties.
  • Describe electrical properties.
  • Describe magnetic properties.
  • Describe thermal properties.
  • Describe thermal expansion and thermal stress.
  • Describe corrosion and thermal degradation.

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
atom The smallest unit of an element. An atom consists of protons and neutrons in a center nucleus and orbiting electrons.
ceramic A hard, brittle material that can withstand high temperatures and resist corrosion. Ceramics include traditional materials such as brick and clay, as well as advanced ceramics used as abrasives, cutting tools, and electrical components.
ceramics A hard, brittle material that can withstand high temperatures and resist corrosion. Ceramics include traditional materials such as brick and clay, as well as advanced ceramics used as abrasives, cutting tools, and electrical components.
composite A material made by combining materials from two or more of the following groups: metals, plastics, and ceramics. Composites are often used to make aircraft components and athletic equipment.
composites A material made by combining materials from two or more of the following groups: metals, plastics, and ceramics.Composites are often used to make aircraft components and athletic equipment.
conductor A material that allows free movement of electrons and therefore enables the easy flow of electricity. Most conductors are metals.
coolants A cutting fluid used to decrease the temperature of the tool and workpiece during machining. Metal cutting operations use coolants to counteract the high temperatures created during cutting.
corrosion The gradual deterioration of a material due to atmosphere, moisture, chemicals, or other agents. Corrosion often appears as rust.
corrosion resistance The ability of a material to resist deterioration and chemical breakdown due to surface exposure in a particular environment. Stainless steel has a high corrosion resistance.
density The mass per unit of volume. Density is a physical property.
dielectric strength The voltage at which the insulating qualities of a material break down. Ceramics and plastics have a high dielectric strength.
electrical conductivity The ability of a material to act as a medium for conveying electricity. Most metals have high electrical conductivity.
electromagnets A magnet formed from electric current. An electromagnet is typically formed by wrapping a current-carrying coil around an iron core.
electron A negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom. Electrons are involved in chemical bonding and electrical conductivity.
insulator A material that has little electrical conductivity and high resistance to electrical charges. Most insulators are plastics and ceramics. Insulators are sometimes called resistors.
magnetism The power of attraction and repulsion that exists in materials. Magnetism most often occurs between metals.
mass The amount of matter in an object. Mass gives an object weight when it is acted upon by gravity.
mechanical force A force that attempts to deform a material. A mechanical force may attempt to stretch, compress, bend, dent, scratch, or break a material.
mechanical properties A characteristic that describes how a material reacts when subjected to a force that attempts to stretch, compress, bend, dent, scratch, or break it.
melting point The temperature at which a material changes from a solid to a liquid.
metal A naturally occurring material with high electric and thermal conductivity, luster, density, and strength. Examples of metal include copper, iron, nickel, and lead.
metals A naturally occurring material with high electric and thermal conductivity, luster, density, and strength. Examples of metal include copper, iron, nickel, and lead.
molecule Two or more atoms jointed together by chemical bonds. A molecule is the smallest unit into which a material can be divided without changing its properties.
neutron A neutrally charged particle within the nucleus of an atom.
physical properties A characteristic that describes a material's volumetric, thermal, electrical, and magnetic qualities. Physical properties are a collection of characteristics that describe how a material responds to forces other than mechanical forces.
plastic A polymer material characterized by lightweight, high corrosion resistance, high strength-to-weight ratios, and low melting points. Most plastics are easily shaped and formed.
plastics A polymer material characterized by lightweight, high corrosion resistance, high strength-to-weight ratios, and low melting points. Most plastics are easily shaped and formed.
proton A positively charged particle within the nucleus of an atom.
resistor A material or device that has little electrical conductivity and high resistance to electrical charges. Most resistors are plastics and ceramics. Resistors are sometimes called insulators.
specific heat The amount of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a specific amount of material by one degree. Every material has its own unique specific heat.
thermal conductivity A physical property that indicates how well heat energy transfers through a material. Materials with low thermal conductivity make good heat insulators.
thermal degradation Deterioration of a material due to overexposure to heat or sun. Thermal degradation is usually associated with plastics and can be caused by ultraviolet radiation.
thermal expansion The tendency of a material to increase in size as it increases in temperature. Every material has its own unique rate at which it expands when subjected to increases in temperature.
thermal stress Damage to a material due to excessive or abrupt changes in temperature. Coolants can decrease the thermal stress on cutting tools.
ultraviolet degradation Deterioration of a plastic material due to overexposure to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
volume A measurement of the amount of space contained within a three-dimensional shape. Volume is a physical property.
weight The degree of heaviness of an object that results from gravity. Weight is a physical property.