Introduction to Mechanical Properties 111

"Intro to Mechanical Properties" provides a thorough introduction to key mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, hardness, ductility, and impact resistance. This class discusses how shear, compression, and tensile stress impact a material's properties, how force is shown on a stress-strain graph, and common methods manufacturers use to test a material's strength. To make quality products, manufacturers must anticipate how a material responds to shaping and cutting forces and understand how that material will ultimately function once it reaches the customer. Evaluating a material's mechanical and physical properties is the first step to choosing reliable tooling and processing methods. After taking Intro to Mechanical Properties, users will know more about hardness, ductility, and strength, what materials exhibit these characteristics, and common methods a facility might use to test these qualities.

Class Details

Class Name:
Introduction to Mechanical Properties 111
Description:
"Intro to Mechanical Properties" provides a thorough introduction to key mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, hardness, ductility, and impact resistance. This class discusses how shear, compression, and tensile stress impact a material's properties, how force is shown on a stress-strain graph, and common methods manufacturers use to test a material's strength. To make quality products, manufacturers must anticipate how a material responds to shaping and cutting forces and understand how that material will ultimately function once it reaches the customer. Evaluating a material's mechanical and physical properties is the first step to choosing reliable tooling and processing methods. After taking Intro to Mechanical Properties, users will know more about hardness, ductility, and strength, what materials exhibit these characteristics, and common methods a facility might use to test these qualities.
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Beginner
Number of Lessons:
21
Related 1.0 Classes:
Intro to Materials 100, Mechanical Properties of Metals 120

Class Outline

  • Manufacturing Materials
  • Mechanical and Physical Properties
  • The Role of Mechanical Properties
  • Material Properties Review
  • Elastic Deformation and Plastic Deformation
  • Understanding Elastic Deformation and Plastic Deformation
  • Types of Mechanical Stress
  • Understanding Mechanical Stress
  • Mechanical Stress Review
  • Stress-Strain Graphs
  • Understanding Stress-Strain Graphs
  • Important Mechanical Properties
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tensile Testing
  • Ductility
  • Toughness
  • Impact Strength Tests
  • Hardness
  • Hardness Testing
  • Mechanical Properties Review
  • Reviewing Mechanical Properties

Objectives

  • List the four types of manufacturing materials.
  • Define physical properties and mechanical properties.
  • Describe how mechanical properties relate to manufacturing applications.
  • Describe stress and strain. Distinguish between elastic deformation and plastic deformation.
  • Distinguish between elastic deformation and plastic deformation.
  • Define tensile stress, compressive stress, and shear stress.
  • Describe aspects of a stress-strain graph.
  • List several important mechanical properties.
  • Define tensile testing.
  • Describe ductility.
  • Describe toughness.
  • Describe hardness.
  • Define the major types of hardness tests.

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
alloying elements Chemical elements that are added to a metal to modify its properties. Manganese, chromium, molybdenum, and nickel are elements commonly added to steel.
Brinell hardness test A hardness test that measures the diameter of a circle formed by the penetration of a 10 mm steel ball under a fixed load pressure. Brinell hardness tests are often used for forged parts and castings.
brittle A material's resistance to drawing, stretching, or forming forces. Brittle materials tend to fracture when subjected to these forces.
ceramic A hard, brittle material that can withstand high temperatures and resist corrosion. Ceramics include traditional materials such as brick and clay, as well as advanced ceramics used as abrasives, cutting tools, and electrical components.
Charpy test An impact test that measures the amount of energy a material can absorb. During a Charpy test, a notched sample is supported on both ends and broken by a falling pendulum.
composite A material made by combining materials from two or more of the following groups: metals, plastics, and ceramics. Composites are often used to make aircraft components and athletic equipment.
compressive stress A force that attempts to flatten or squeeze a material. Compression strength is the ability to resist compressive stress.
corrosion resistance The ability of a material to resist deterioration and chemical breakdown due to surface exposure in a particular environment. Metals with low corrosion resistance develop rust when exposed to moisture and chemicals.
deform To change or alter the shape of an object. Mechanical properties describe how materials respond to deforming forces.
ductile A material's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without fracturing. Ductile is the opposite of brittle.
ductility The measure of a material's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without fracturing. Copper and aluminum are metals with good ductility.
ductility The measure of a material's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without fracturing. Copper and aluminum are metals with good ductility.
elastic deformation Temporary deformation of a material due to stress. When a material experiences elastic deformation, it returns to its original shape once the stress is removed.
elastic limit The maximum stress a material can withstand before being plastically deformed. Elastic limit is also called yield strength.
electrical conductivity The ability of a material to act as a medium for conveying electricity. Most metals have high electrical conductivity.
forged A metal shaping process that uses force to compress and align the metal's internal structure. Forging operations typically heat the metal to an elevated temperature.
hardness The measure of a material's ability to resist penetration, indentation, and scratching. A material's hardness can be determined through Rockwell, Brinell, and other hardness testing methods.
hardness The measure of a material's ability to resist penetration. A material's hardness can be determined through Rockwell, Brinell, and other hardness testing methods.
heat treated Controlled heating and cooling processes used to change to structure of a material and alter its physical and mechanical properties. Annealing, quenching, and tempering are heat treatments.
impact strength The measure of material's ability to absorb energy from a sudden, sharp blow without fracturing. Impact strength is also known as impact toughness.
impact toughness The measure of material's ability to absorb energy from a sudden, sharp blow without fracturing. Impact toughness is also known as impact strength.
Izod test An impact test that measures the amount of energy a material can absorb. During an Izod test, a notched sample is supported on one end and broken by a swinging pendulum.
load The force applied to an object by another object. Prolonged or heavy loads can cause deformation.
mechanical force A force that attempts to deform a material. A mechanical force may attempt to stretch, compress, bend, dent, scratch, or break a material.
mechanical properties A characteristic that describes how a material reacts when subjected to a force that attempts to stretch, compress, bend, dent, scratch, or break it. Hardness, ductility, and tensile strength are mechanical properties.
metal A naturally occurring material with high electric and thermal conductivity, luster, density, and strength. Examples of a metal include copper, iron, nickel, and lead.
modulus The slope of a stress-strain curve. The shape of the modulus indicates the stiffness or elasticity of a material.
modulus of elasticity A variable that describes the relationship of stress to strain within a material's elastic region. On a stress-strain graph, the modulus of elasticity depicts a material's tendency for temporary deformation.
physical properties A characteristic that describes a material's volumetric, thermal, electrical, and magnetic characteristics. Physical properties are a collection of characteristics that describe how a material responds to forces other than mechanical forces.
plastic A polymer material characterized by lightweight, high corrosion resistance, high strength-to-weight ratios, and low melting points. Most plastics are easily shaped and formed.
plastic deformation Permanent deformation of a material due to stress. Plastic deformation occurs after excessive elastic deformation.
Rockwell hardness test A hardness test that measures the degree of penetration into a material caused by a cone-shaped or ball indenter that is applied under a fixed load. Two static loads are applied to the material during the test.
shear stress A force that attempts to cause the internal structure of a material to slide against itself. Shear strength is a material's ability to resist shear stress.
specific heat The amount of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a specific amount of material by one degree. Every material has its own unique specific heat.
stiffness The ability of a material to resist bending or stretching. Stiffness is sometimes called rigidity.
strain The ratio of change in a dimension that takes place with a material under stress. Strain is a measurement of stress.
strength The ability of a material to resist forces that attempt to break or deform it. A material exhibits tensile, compression, or shear strength, depending on the deforming force.
stress The intensity or concentration of deforming force applied to a material. Common forms of stress include compression, shear, and tensile.
stress-strain graph A graph that depicts the relationship between stress and strain and marks the elastic and plastic regions for a given material. Stress-strain graphs are also called stress-strain curves.
tensile strength The ability of a material to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. Tensile strength is the amount of tensile stress a material can withstand before fracturing.
tensile strength The ability of a material to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. On a stress-strain graph, tensile strength is the highest amount of stress a material can withstand before failing.
tensile strength The ability of a material to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. Tensile strength is the amount of tensile stress a material can withstand before fracturing.
tensile stress A force that attempts to pull apart or stretch a material. Tensile strength is a material's ability to resist tensile stress.
tensile test A test that evaluates a material's tensile strength by stretching a specimen until it breaks. Tensile testing is sometimes called tension testing.
tension test A test that evaluates a material's tensile strength by stretching a specimen until it breaks. Tension testing is sometimes called tensile testing.
torsion stress A type of shear stress that attempts to twist a material against itself. Torsion strength is the ability to resist torsion stress.
toughness The measure of a material's ability to absorb mechanical forces before fracturing. Tough materials can resist impacts and other forces.
toughness The measure of a material's ability to absorb mechanical forces before fracturing. Tough materials can resist impacts and other forces.
yield strength The maximum stress a material can withstand before being plastically deformed. Yield strength is called the elastic limit.