Metal Removal Processes 110

This class describes traditional machining processes such as metal cutting and grinding, as well as various nontraditional methods of machining.

Class Details

Class Name:
Metal Removal Processes 110
This class describes traditional machining processes such as metal cutting and grinding, as well as various nontraditional methods of machining.
Number of Lessons:
Additional Language:
Spanish, Chinese
Related 2.0 Class:
Cutting Processes 111

Class Outline

  • Objectives
  • Advantages of Machining
  • Traditional Machining Operations
  • Turning
  • Drilling
  • Milling
  • Other Cutting Operations
  • Abrasive Processes
  • Common Grinding Operations
  • Other Grinding Operations
  • Other Abrasive Processes
  • Nontraditional Machining
  • Electric Discharge Machining
  • Abrasive Water-jet Machining
  • Electrochemical Machining
  • Chemical Machining
  • Summary


  • Describe machining.
  • Describe turning.
  • Describe single- and multi-point cutting.
  • Describe drilling.
  • Describe milling.
  • Describe sawing and broaching.
  • Describe grinding.
  • Distinguish between grinding operations.
  • Describe other abrasive machining processes.
  • Describe abrasive materials.
  • List the advantages of nontraditional machining.
  • Describe electric discharge machining.
  • Describe abrasive water-jet machining.
  • Describe electrochemical machining.
  • Describe chemical machining.

Job Roles


  • CMfgT
  • MSSC Manufacturing Processes and Production


Vocabulary Term Definition
abrasive A material consisting of hard particles used to wear down, rub away, or machine material.
abrasive water-jet machining A nontraditional machining operation that uses a highly concentrated stream of water mixed with abrasive particles to cut through a material.
broach A special cutting tool with a series of multiple cutting teeth that progressively remove material from a workpiece in one pass.
broaching The use of a cutting tool with a series of teeth that is used to change the shape or dimensions of a hole. Broaching can also be used to remove material from a workpiece surface.
burr A sharp, unwanted bit of material remaining on an edge after machining. Burrs can potentially cut individuals and often interfere with assembly.
carbide A common cutting tool material that is used to make both indexable inserts and solid cutting tools. They provide a cutting edge that is very hard and wear resistant.
centerless grinding A common grinding operation in which a cylindrical part is supported on a work rest blade and guided between a grinding wheel and a regulating wheel.
chemical machining A machining process that removes metal from a workpiece by immersing it into a chemical solution.
chip An unwanted piece of metal that is removed from a workpiece. Chips are formed when a tool cuts or grinds metal.
coated abrasive belt A flexible belt composed of abrasive grains that are adhered to a backing material with an adhesive.
computer numerical control The use of computers, programs, and precise motors to automatically control tool movement and carry out sequences of machining operations.
creep feed grinding A grinding operation in which the depth of cut is increased while the feed rate is decreased compared to normal grinding. It is used to remove thick layers of material.
cutoff For grinding, the use of a thin grinding wheel to cut through material and separate it into two pieces.
cylindrical grinding A common grinding process that holds a cylindrical part on each end and rotates the part as a grinding wheel is guided along its length.
dielectric fluid A fluid that does not conduct an electric current under normal circumstances. For EDM, the dielectric fluid insulates and cools the electrode and workpiece, conveys the spark, and flushes away the removed metal.
drill press A machining tool that uses a drill to penetrate the surface of a workpiece and make a round hole. Drill presses can be used for a variety of hole-making operations.
drilling The use of a rotating multi-point drill to cut a round hole into a workpiece.
electric discharge machining The most common nontraditional machining process that removes metal through the use of an electric current. The workpiece is immersed in a dielectric fluid.
electrochemical machining A nontraditional machining process that removes metal by pumping a mixture of salt and water at a high pressure into a small gap between the workpiece and a formed tool.
electrode A device used to convey an electric current, which can either leave or enter the electrode. EDM machines generate an electric spark between an electrode and the workpiece.
end mill A thin, tall mill cutter with cutting edges that wind up the sides. Both the bottom and side of the end mill are used during milling operations. End mills resemble drills.
etching The use of a chemical solution to dissolve metal.
face mill A flat mill cutter with multiple cutting teeth surrounding the tool. The bottom of the face mill is primarily used during milling operations.
flute The curved recess that winds up the length of a drill. Flutes provide an opening for chip clearance.
grain A small, hard particle or crystal of abrasive material.
grinding The use of an abrasive to wear away at the surface of a workpiece and change its shape. Grinding operations commonly use abrasive grains bonded into a wheel shape.
grinding wheel A wheel made of a bonded abrasive used to grind the surfaces of parts.
high-speed steel A common cutting tool material that is relatively inexpensive and that offers excellent toughness.
honing A precision abrasion process in which a relatively small amount of material is removed from a surface by means of abrasive stones. The goal is to obtain a desired finish or extremely accurate features.
insert A cutting bit that has multiple cutting edges. Once a cutting edge is excessively worn, it can be indexed to another edge, or the insert can be replaced.
lapping An abrasive process that removes the last bit of unwanted material. A lapping process sometimes uses an abrasive paste that is rubbed across the part to gradually smooth it.
lathe A machine tool that holds a cylindrical workpiece at one or both ends and rotates it while various cutting tools remove material. Turning is a common operation performed on the lathe.
machining The process of removing metal to form or finish a part, either with traditional methods like turning, drilling, milling, and grinding, or with less traditional methods that use electricity, heat, or chemical reaction.
mandrel For honing, the rotating shaft on which honing stones are mounted.
maskant A material that protects a metal surface during the etching process.
mill A rotating multi-point cutting tool that is guided along a workpiece to create flat surfaces or slots. The term also refers to a machine tool used to perform milling operations on a workpiece.
milling The use of a rotating multi-point cutting tool to machine flat surfaces, slots, or internal recesses into a workpiece. Milling includes a wide range of versatile metal cutting operations.
multi-point tool A machining tool that has two or more cutting edges.
nontraditional machining The use of chemical, thermal, or electrical processes to machine a workpiece and remove material. Nontraditional machining includes a wide range of operations used for special purposes or unique workpieces.
offhand grinding A form of rough grinding used to remove excess material without regard to surface finish. The workpiece is generally held in the operator's hand and placed against a moving abrasive tool.
regulating wheel A wheel, usually made of plastic or rubber bond, used during centerless grinding to rotate the workpiece and pull it through the operation. The regulating wheel is opposite the grinding wheel.
sawing A basic metal cutting process that uses a blade with a series of teeth on its edge to cut a narrow opening in a workpiece. Sawing may be used to produce slots or grooves or to separate the workpiece into two pieces.
scrap Any material not used to create the final part. During most machining operations, scrap appears in the form of chips.
single-point tool A machining tool that has one single cutting edge.
stock Material available in the form of sheets, plates, or long bars that is used to make parts during manufacturing.
surface grinding A common grinding process generally used on flat surfaces that feeds a workpiece beneath a rotating grinding wheel.
traditional machining The group of machining operations that use single- or multi-point tools to remove material in the form of chips.
turning A machining operation that rotates a cylindrical workpiece while a single-point tool is guided along the length of the part. Turning is commonly performed with a lathe.
workpiece A part that is being worked on during manufacturing. The workpiece may be subject to cutting, welding, forming, or other operations.