Machines for Metal Cutting 130

This class identifies and describes the common machines used in metal cutting.

Class Details

Class Name:
Machines for Metal Cutting 130
This class identifies and describes the common machines used in metal cutting.
Number of Lessons:
Additional Language:
Spanish, Chinese
Related 2.0 Class:
Overview of Machine Tools 121

Class Outline

  • Objectives
  • Machines for Metal Cutting
  • Saws
  • Lathes
  • Types of Lathes
  • Lathe Components
  • The Carriage and the Compound Rest
  • Cutting Tools for the Lathe
  • Milling Machines
  • Types of Milling Machines
  • Milling Machine Components
  • Moveable Components of the Milling Machine
  • Cutting Tools for the Milling Machine
  • Drill Presses
  • Broaching Machines
  • Summary


  • Describe machining.
  • Describe common saws.
  • Describe how lathes cut parts.
  • Describe common lathes.
  • Identify major lathe components.
  • Define carriage and compound rest.
  • Describe common lathe cutting tools.
  • Describe how milling machines cut parts.
  • Describe common milling machines.
  • Identify major milling machine components.
  • Define different moving parts of the milling machine.
  • Describe common milling machine cutting tools.
  • Describe the role of the drill press.
  • Identify components of the drill press.
  • Describe a broaching machine.


  • MSSC Manufacturing Processes and Production


Vocabulary Term Definition
arbor The bar attached to the spindle in a horizontal milling machine. The arbor holds the milling cutter.
automatic bar machine A turning machine that continuously cuts a number of parts from a piece of bar stock, one after another. The bar stock advances through the spindle and is held by the collet during the operation.
axis An imaginary straight line that passes through the center of an object.
backstroke The return motion of a saw blade that cuts with a back-and-forth movement.
band saw A long, continuous cutting blade with serrated teeth that is looped around two or more wheels.
bar stock Raw material purchased from metal manufacturers in the form of long bars.
base The foundation of a machine that supports all the other machine components.
bed The main supporting structure upon which the operating parts of the machine are mounted and guided.
bed-type milling machine A type of milling machine used to mill flat surfaces that has a large bed, which only moves along a horizontal axis.
broach A multi-point cutting tool made of a series of progressively smaller teeth that can both remove metal and finish the surface of a workpiece with one pass of the cutting tool.
broaching machine A machine that uses a multi-point cutting tool to shape and finish either the interior of a hole or the surface of a workpiece.
carbide insert A cutting bit made of hard material that has multiple cutting edges. Once a cutting edge is excessively worn, it can be indexed to another edge, or the insert can be replaced.
carriage The section of the lathe that slides back and forth along the ways and supports the cross-slide and cutting tool.
center The device located in the tailstock that holds in place the end of the workpiece opposite the spindle.
chip An unwanted piece of metal that is removed from a workpiece. Chips are formed when a tool cuts or grinds metal.
chuck A device that holds a workpiece in place as it rotates. The chuck commonly has three or four jaws that can be adjusted to fit various sizes.
circular saw A power saw that cuts with a toothed or abrasive disk rotating at high speed.
CNC machining center A sophisticated CNC machine that can perform multiple machining operations in the same setup with a variety of tools.
CNC turning center A sophisticated CNC machine that specializes in turning, boring, drilling, and threading operations, all at the same location.
collet A slitted device that holds a workpiece in place as it rotates. A collet has a hole through which the workpiece passes, and it is designed to hold specific dimensions. Collets can also be used to hold cutting tools.
column The vertical support, or backbone, of a machine.
column-and-knee milling machine A milling machine with a spindle that is mounted in the column and a worktable that rests on an adjustable knee.
compound rest The part of the lathe on the carriage that allows for angular adjustment of the cutting tool.
contour A cutting process that creates a curved, non-linear dimension.
countersinking The cutting of a beveled edge at the end of a hole so that the head of a screw can rest flush with the workpiece surface.
cutting The use of single- or multi- point tools to separate metal from a workpiece in the form of chips.
drilling The use of a rotating drill in order to cut a round hole into a workpiece.
drive The main device that powers the rotation of the spindle.
end mill A thin, tall mill cutter with cutting edges that wind up the sides. Both the bottom and side of the end mill are used during milling operations. End mills resemble drills.
engine lathe The original and most basic type of lathe.
face mill A flat mill cutter with multiple cutting teeth surrounding the tool. The bottom of the face mill is primarily used during milling operations.
feed handle A handle attached to a machine that controls the movement of the cutting tool.
finishing tool A single-point cutting tool used to make a very light cut for final touches to achieve precise tolerances or improved finishes.
form mill A type of milling cutter that is designed in an irregular shape in order to mill contours.
hacksaw A saw that contains a blade made of high-speed steel, molybdenum, or tungsten alloy steel that cuts in one direction.
head The part of a drill press that contains the spindle and the motor.
headstock The end of a lathe that holds the spindle and the drive that rotates the workpiece.
high-speed steel A material used in cutting tools to machine metals at high cutting speeds. High-speed steel stays hard at high temperatures, has great hardness, and is resistant to abrasion.
keyway A rectangular slot or groove that is machined down the length of a hole.
knee The device supported by an elevating screw that raises and lowers and guides the back and forth motion of the saddle.
lathe A machine tool that holds a cylindrical workpiece at one or both ends and rotates it while various cutting tools remove material. Turning is a common operation performed on the lathe.
leadscrew The long, threaded device that controls the precise movement of the carriage on a lathe.
machine tool A power-driven machine that holds a variety of tools. These tools include cutting tools, workholding devices, punches, and other manufacturing tools.
machining The process of removing metal to form or finish a part, either with traditional methods like turning, drilling, milling, and grinding, or with less traditional methods that use electricity, heat, or chemical reaction.
mill A multi-point cutting tool that is used to remove metal from the surface of a workpiece.
milling cutter A rotary cutting tool with teeth around its periphery that is used on milling machines.
milling machine A machine that uses a multi-point tool to remove metal from the surface of a workpiece.
multiple spindle drill A drilling machine that contains two or more spindles, which perform multiple cutting operations at the same time.
multi-point tool A cutting tool that has two or more cutting edges.
overarm The device on a horizontal milling machine that reaches over the workpiece and supports the spindle or arbor.
plain mill A cutting tool for the milling machine with cutting surfaces on the periphery. It is used to mill flat surfaces.
planer-type milling machine A very large type of milling machine that often contains numerous milling heads.
plate stock A flat piece of raw material that is used to make manufactured parts.
pocket An interior recess that is cut into the surface of a workpiece.
radial drill A drilling machine that can accommodate large workpieces by maneuvering an overarm in place over the workpiece.
reaming The use of a multi-point cutting tool to smooth or enlarge a previously drilled hole.
reciprocating The back-and-forth motion of a hacksaw in which only one motion actually contacts and cuts the workpiece.
rough cutting The quick removal of metal from a workpiece without regard to tolerances or finish.
roughing tool A single-point cutting tool used to make very heavy cuts and remove metal as quickly as possible.
saddle The device supported by the knee that slides back and forth on the knee and guides the left and right motion of the worktable.
saw A multi-point cutting device that is used to rough cut a part to a certain length.
shell mill A type of milling cutter that has cutting edges around its periphery and can be mounted on an arbor.
side mill A narrow type of milling cutter that has cutting edges on both its end and periphery.
single-point tool A cutting tool that has a single cutting edge.
slab broach A flat-shaped broach that is used to remove metal from the workpiece surface.
spindle The part of the machine tool that spins. On the mill, the spindle holds a cutting tool. On the lathe, the spindle holds the workpiece.
stock The raw material out of which manufactured parts are made.
tailstock The part located at the end of a lathe opposite the headstock that supports the end of longer workpieces.
tapping The process of cutting internal threads in a workpiece with a multi-point tool.
tolerance The unwanted but acceptable deviation from the desired dimension.
t-slot cutter A type of milling cutter that is used to machine a portion of a T-shaped slot into a workpiece.
turning A machining operation used to make cylindrical parts. A single-point cutting tool passes along the outer surface of a cylindrical workpiece as it rotates, and gradually removes a layer of material.
turret The component of a lathe that holds a number of cutting tools. The turret rotates to place tools in the cutting position.
turret lathe A lathe with a mounted device that holds multiple cutting tools. The turret rotates to position a specific cutting tool in place.
vise A workholding device with one fixed jaw and one moveable jaw. Vises are often used to hold simple rectangular or cubic workpieces on a mill or machining center.
ways Two precisely measured, parallel tracks that support and guide the movement of the carriage and cross slide.
workpiece A part that is being worked on. It may be subject to cutting, welding, forming or other operations.
worktable The part of a machine tool that supports the workpiece and any workholding devices.