Value Stream Mapping: The Current State 301

"Value Stream Mapping: The Current State" provides an introduction to the tools and process of value stream mapping. This course explains common value stream mapping (VSM) icons, the steps to creating a VSM, and outlines how to calculate key metrics, such as cycle time, parts per hour, and capacity. Users will also be guided through the development of a current state VSM for a company making a low-variety/high-volume product.

Isolating and eliminating waste are critical to achieving streamlined operations in lean manufacturing. Current and future state value stream maps are one tool companies can use to track their processes and make plans for improvement. After taking this course, users will be able to identify VSM icons, calculate critical metrics, and contribute to current state VSM development.

Class Details

Class Name:
Value Stream Mapping: The Current State 301
Description:
"Value Stream Mapping: The Current State" provides an introduction to the tools and process of value stream mapping. This course explains common value stream mapping (VSM) icons, the steps to creating a VSM, and outlines how to calculate key metrics, such as cycle time, parts per hour, and capacity. Users will also be guided through the development of a current state VSM for a company making a low-variety/high-volume product.

Isolating and eliminating waste are critical to achieving streamlined operations in lean manufacturing. Current and future state value stream maps are one tool companies can use to track their processes and make plans for improvement. After taking this course, users will be able to identify VSM icons, calculate critical metrics, and contribute to current state VSM development.
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Advanced
Number of Lessons:
24
Related 1.0 Class:
Value Stream Mapping: The Present State 300

Class Outline

  • What Is a Value Stream Map?
  • Process Flow Charts
  • Current and Future States
  • Types of Value Stream Mapping Icons
  • Process Icons
  • Material Icons
  • Information Icons
  • Miscellaneous Icons
  • VSM Icon Review
  • Mapping the Current State
  • Mapping the Current State: Example
  • Shipping and Receiving
  • Shipping and Receiving: Example
  • Process and Data Boxes
  • Process and Data Boxes: Example
  • The Flow of Information
  • The Flow of Information: Example
  • Inventory
  • Timeline
  • Push, Pull, and FIFO
  • VSM Steps Review
  • Metrics
  • Metrics: Example
  • Reviewing the Current state VSM

Objectives

  • Describe a value stream map.
  • Distinguish a VSM from other process flow charts.
  • Distinguish between current and future state value stream maps.
  • Identify the main categories of value stream mapping icons.
  • Identify process icons.
  • Identify material icons.
  • Identify information icons.
  • Identify miscellaneous mapping icons.
  • Identify the location of the supplier, customer, and production control icons.
  • Identify the location of icons and arrows related to shipping and receiving.
  • List processes commonly tracked in data boxes.
  • Identify the location of arrows related to the flow of information.
  • Identify inventory locations.
  • Identify the timeline.
  • Distinguish between Push, Pull, and FIFO.
  • Describe the purpose of metrics.
  • Describe the purpose of a current state map.

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
availability time The time a production line is available for production. Availability time is measured in seconds and does not include planned downtime like lunch periods and breaks.
capacity A metric that indicates how many parts per day the slowest process can handle. Capacity is determined by multiplying parts per hour by the time in one shift or one day.
changeover time C/O. The non-value added time required to convert a setup for one product line to a setup for another product line. Manufacturers try to reduce changeover time as much as possible.
communication arrows A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate the flow of information or goods. Communication arrows are solid arrows that point to the person or area that receives the information or material.
current state map A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment. A current state value stream map, sometimes called a present state map, captures all of the details of manufacturing processes just as they exist at the moment the map is produced, including any flaws or errors.
customer icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the customer. The customer icon is usually situated in the upper right corner of the value stream map.
cycle time C/T. The time it takes to perform a task and forward it to the next step. One of the major goals of lean is to match cycle time to takt time, which is the ideal production pace.
data box A value stream mapping symbol used to represent information related to a particular process. Data boxes are located directly beneath a process box.
data boxes A value stream mapping symbol used to represent information related to a particular process. Data boxes are located directly beneath a process box.
downstream Activities that take place toward the end of the production process. Downstream processes receive materials and in-process products from upstream processes.
EDI Electronic Data Interchange. The standard data transmission between computers. EDI methods are represented by electronic information icons on a value stream map.
electronic info icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the flow of electronic information. Electronic information icons are jagged arrows that often include the frequency of the information, such as daily or monthly.
external shipment icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent shipments from suppliers or to customers. External shipment icons resemble a truck.
FIFO lane icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent first-in-first-out inventory. FIFO is an inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system.
first-in-first-out FIFO. An inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first. In FIFO, the oldest product is the first to leave the system.
first-in-first-out inventory FIFO inventory. An inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system.
future state map A visual tool that shows how a value stream can look after improvements have been implemented. A future state value stream map is an ideal view of a value stream and represents the goal of a lean initiative.
future state map A visual tool that shows how a value stream can look after improvements have been implemented. A future-state value stream map is an ideal view of a value stream and represents the goal of a lean initiative.
go see icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which information must be gathered. Go see icons resemble a pair of eye glasses.
inventory The storage of raw material, in-process parts, and completed, manufactured products. In lean manufacturing, excess inventory is considered waste.
inventory icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent raw materials before processing, parts in varying stages of completion between processes, or finished goods in storage before shipment to a customer. Inventory icons are shaped like tombstones or triangles.
job shop A manufacturing facility that produces several different products in smaller batches. A machine shop is a type of job shop.
kaizen burst icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area of the value stream which could benefit from a kaizen event. Kaizen events involve employees from all levels of the company coming together to solve problems.
kanban post icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area of the value stream at which kanban signals are waiting for transport. Kanban post icons resemble goal posts.
lead time The amount of time it takes from the beginning of a project to the completion of a finished product. Lead time can also be the length of time from the customer's order to shipment.
load leveling icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area at which production can be targeted and smoothed out over time. Load leveling icons include the letters X and O.
low-variety/high-volume A type of manufacturing environment in which the end products are produced in large quantities and with very little variation. Low-variety/high-volume companies are suited to value stream mapping activities.
manual info icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the flow of written or spoken information. Manual information icons are straight arrows and often include the frequency of the information, such as daily or monthly.
material pull icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent areas of the stream where downstream processes connect to a supermarket. Material pull icons look like circular arrows.
metrics Measured variables that are tracked over time in order todetect errors or variation and make improvements. Cycle time, capacity, and parts per hour are metrics used in manufacturing.
MRP/ERP icon Material requirements planning/enterprise resource planning icon. A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a material requirements planning or enterprise resource planning scheduling system.
non-value added Activities that do not contribute to the product or the process and should therefore be eliminated. Non-value added steps are waste.
non-value added but essential Activities that support value added steps but that do not directly contribute to the product. Material handling and inspection could be considered non-value added but essential steps.
operator icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a human operator in the value stream. Multiple operators are indicated by a number next to the operator icon.
other information icon A value stream mapping symbol used to contain any other useful miscellaneous information that may be critical to defining the given value stream. Other information icons are rectangular.
parts per hour PPH. A metric that indicates the amount of parts produced within one hour. PPH is an indicator of process efficiency.
present state maps A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment. A present state value stream map, sometimes called a current state map, captures all of the details of manufacturing processes just as they exist at the moment the map is produced, including any flaws or errors.
process box A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a single operation. Process boxes are located along the bottom of the value stream map.
process flow chart A visual representation of the steps required to manufacture a product. Spaghetti diagrams, process maps, and value stream maps are examples of process flow charts.
process map A process flow chart that uses symbols and arrows to show the flow of the manufacturing process. Process maps are less complex than value stream maps.
product family Groups of products that use similar machines or processes during manufacture. Grouping products according to family simplifies process flow charting.
production control icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the area of the map where control and scheduling decisions are made. Production control icons are rectangular.
production kanban icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a visual signal asks for more parts from upstream processes. Production kanban icons include a square and dotted arrow.
production supervisor A leader who directs the flow of information from production control to each individual process. The production supervisor is represented by a box located in the center of a value stream map.
pull A lean manufacturing method in which items are not delivered to a stage of the process until they are needed. Pull systems help reduce inventory.
push A traditional manufacturing environment in which parts are produced based on maintaining preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts. Push systems typically increase inventory levels.
push arrow A value stream mapping symbol used to show on the map where products are being "pushed" through the system. In a push system, production is based on keeping up with preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts.
push arrow A value stream mapping symbol used to show where products are being "pushed" through the system. In a push system, production is based on keeping up with preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts.
receiving The movement of raw materials from a supplier to a manufacturing facility. Receiving areas on a value stream map are indicated by an external shipment icon.
safety stock icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent temporary inventory kept on hand to protect the stream from downtime. Safety stock icons resemble stacked blocks.
sequenced pull icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area at which a pull system tells other processes to produce a product while bypassing the supermarket. Sequenced pull icons are circular.
shipment arrow A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the shipping and receiving of goods. Receiving involves the movement of materials from suppliers, while shipping involves the movement of materials to customers.
shipping The movement of materials from a manufacturing facility to a customer. Shipping areas are indicated on a value stream map by an external shipment icon.
signal kanban icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a kanban signal notifies processes upstream that the supermarket inventory levels are down to a minimum. Signal kanban icons include a triangle and a dotted arrow.
spaghetti diagram A process flow chart that uses a continuous line to trace the path of a product through the manufacturing process. Spaghetti diagrams expose inefficient layouts and large distances traveled between steps.
supermarket icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a stock point of inventory that supplies multiple downstream channels. Supermarket icons resemble open shelving.
supplier icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the entity that provides raw materials. The supplier icon is usually situated in the upper left corner of the value stream map.
takt time The rate at which a customer requires a company to manufacture products. Takt time is the number of work minutes per day divided by the number of orders per day.
timeline A two-tier system of lines used to indicate value added and non-value added time on a value stream map. The timeline is located on the bottom of the value stream map.
timeline A two-tier system of lines used to indicate value-added and non-value-added time on a value stream map. Timelines are located at the bottom of the value stream map.
total cycle time The sum of all cycle times in a value stream. Total cycle time is also called total value-adding time.
total value-adding time The sum of all cycle times in a value stream. Total value-adding time is also called total cycle time.
upstream Activities that take place toward the beginning of the production process. Upstream processes move materials and in-process products to downstream processes.
uptime The ratio of the actual production time of a machine to the availability time. Uptime is expressed as a percentage and is calculated by dividing actual production time by the availability time.
value added Any part of the production process that improves the product for the customer. For a process to be value added, a customer must be willing to pay for it.
value stream The series of activities within a supply chain that add value from the perception of the customer. The value stream involves the series of activities needed to create a product.
value stream map VSM. A sophisticated flow charting method that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to help visualize processes and track performance. Value stream maps help determine which steps of a process add value and which do not.
verbal information icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which verbal interaction takes place. Verbal information icons resemble a stick figure.
waste Any element of the manufacturing process that does not add value to a product. The goal of lean manufacturing is to eliminate waste.
WIP Work in progress. A type of inventory that is currently being processed. WIP metrics are measured in days.
withdrawal kanban icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a visual signal asks for parts from a supermarket to be moved to a downstream process. Withdrawal kanban icons include a square and a dotted arrow.
work cell A specialized grouping of people, machines, and materials. The purpose of a cell is to efficiently produce small batches of parts.
work cell icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a group consisting of many processes, people, and machines used to efficiently produce one part in small batches. Work cell icons resemble an inverted "U."
work in progress WIP. A type of inventory that is currently in process. WIP is measured in days.