# CNC Coordinates 140

This class explains the arrangement and orientation of the basic axes on a common CNC lathe and both a vertical and horizontal CNC mill. Includes an Interactive Lab.

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## Class Details

Class Name:
CNC Coordinates 140
Description:
This class explains the arrangement and orientation of the basic axes on a common CNC lathe and both a vertical and horizontal CNC mill. Includes an Interactive Lab.
Version:
1.0
Difficulty:
Beginner
Number of Lessons:
16
Spanish, Chinese
Related 2.0 Classes:
Coordinates for the CNC Lathe 221, Coordinates for the CNC Mill 222

## Class Outline

• Objectives
• CNC Coordinates
• The Axes and Origin
• Positive and Negative Directions
• Coordinates in Blueprints
• Incremental Coordinates
• Absolute Coordinates
• Rotational Axes
• Contouring
• Coordinate Standards for Machines
• Standard Axes Locations
• Coordinates for the Vertical Milling Machine
• Coordinates for the Horizontal Milling Machine
• Coordinates for the Turning Center
• Machine Zero and Program Zero
• Summary

## Objectives

• Describe the role of coordinates in CNC.
• Identify the three axes of the Cartesian coordinate system.
• Identify positive and negative directions along axes.
• Describe the relationship between measurements on the drawing and coordinates.
• Define incremental coordinates.
• Define absolute coordinates.
• Describe the rotational axes.
• Describe contouring.
• Describe the importance of coordinates for CNC machines.
• Identify the general rules for axis location.
• Identify the axes for the vertical milling machine.
• Identify the axes for the horizontal milling machine.
• Identify the axes for the turning center.
• Define machine zero.
• Define program zero.

## Certifications

MSSC
• MSSC Manufacturing Processes and Production

## Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
A-axis A rotational axis that describes motion around the X-axis.
absolute coordinates A series of numerical positions that are calculated from a fixed point of origin.
axes An imaginary line that passes through the center of an object. Axes are used to measure the distances of objects in the Cartesian coordinate system.
B-axis A rotational axis that describes motion around the Y-axis.
Cartesian coordinate system The numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes.
C-axis A rotational axis that describes motion around the Z-axis.
computer numerical control A type of programmable control system, directed by mathematical data, which uses microcomputers to carry out various machining operations.
contouring Tool movement along two or more axes at the same time to generate curved, non-linear features.
Electronics Industries Association An organization that sets standards for technology industries.
horizontal milling machine A milling machine with a spindle that is parallel to the ground and a worktable that is positioned vertically.
incremental coordinates A series of numerical positions that use the previous position as the point of origin.
linear interpolation A movement along two or more axes simultaneously that creates a straight line.
machine zero The position located at the farthest possible distance in a positive direction along the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. This position is permanently set for each particular CNC machine.
machining center A sophisticated CNC mill that can perform multiple machining operations in the same setup with a variety of tools.
origin The fixed, central point in the Cartesian coordinate system. The origin has a numerical value of zero.
part program A series of numerical instructions used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to machine a specific workpiece.
program zero The position that acts as the origin for the part program of a particular workpiece. This position is unique to each workpiece design, and it is selected by the part programmer.
right angle An angle formed by two lines that are perpendicular to one another. The corner of a piece of paper forms a right angle.
right-hand rule A quick reference that shows the location of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. A person displays his or her right hand, and the first three fingers from the right each represent the X-, Y-, and Z-axis in order.
rotational axes The axes that describe turning or rotation around the linear axes.
spindle The main component of the machine tool that rotates. On the machining center, the spindle holds a cutting tool. On the turning center, the spindle holds the workpiece.
turning center A sophisticated CNC lathe that specializes in turning, boring, drilling, and threading operations, all at the same location.
vertical milling machine A milling machine with a worktable that is parallel to the ground and a spindle that is positioned vertically.
workpiece A part that is being worked on. It may be subject to cutting, welding, forming, or other operations.
worktable The table that supports a workpiece during a manufacturing operation.
X-axis The linear axis representing motions and positions that travel the longest distance parallel to the worktable.
Y-axis The linear axis representing motions and positions that travel the shortest distance parallel to the worktable.
Z-axis The linear axis that represents motions and positions perpendicular to the worktable. The Z-axis is always parallel to the spindle.