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## CLASS DETAILS

- Class Name:
- CNC Coordinates 140
- Description:
- This class explains the arrangement and orientation of the basic axes on a common CNC lathe and both a vertical and horizontal CNC mill.
**Includes an Interactive Lab.** - Version:
- 1.0
- Difficulty:
- Beginner
- Number of Lessons:
- 16
- Additional Language:
- Spanish, Chinese

## Class Outline

- Objectives
- CNC Coordinates
- The Axes and Origin
- Positive and Negative Directions
- Coordinates in Blueprints
- Incremental Coordinates
- Absolute Coordinates
- Rotational Axes
- Contouring
- Coordinate Standards for Machines
- Standard Axes Locations
- Coordinates for the Vertical Milling Machine
- Coordinates for the Horizontal Milling Machine
- Coordinates for the Turning Center
- Machine Zero and Program Zero
- Summary

## Objectives

- Describe the role of coordinates in CNC.
- Identify the three axes of the Cartesian coordinate system.
- Identify positive and negative directions along axes.
- Describe the relationship between measurements on the drawing and coordinates.
- Define incremental coordinates.
- Define absolute coordinates.
- Describe the rotational axes.
- Describe contouring.
- Describe the importance of coordinates for CNC machines.
- Identify the general rules for axis location.
- Identify the axes for the vertical milling machine.
- Identify the axes for the horizontal milling machine.
- Identify the axes for the turning center.
- Define machine zero.
- Define program zero.

## Job Roles

## Certifications

NIMS- CNC Lathe Operations
- CNC Milling Operations

- MSSC Manufacturing Processes and Production

## Glossary

Vocabulary Term | Definition |
---|---|

A-axis | A rotational axis that describes motion around the X-axis. |

absolute coordinates | A series of numerical positions that are calculated from a fixed point of origin. |

axes | An imaginary line that passes through the center of an object. Axes are used to measure the distances of objects in the Cartesian coordinate system. |

B-axis | A rotational axis that describes motion around the Y-axis. |

Cartesian coordinate system | The numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes. |

C-axis | A rotational axis that describes motion around the Z-axis. |

computer numerical control | A type of programmable control system, directed by mathematical data, which uses microcomputers to carry out various machining operations. |

contouring | Tool movement along two or more axes at the same time to generate curved, non-linear features. |

Electronics Industries Association | An organization that sets standards for technology industries. |

horizontal milling machine | A milling machine with a spindle that is parallel to the ground and a worktable that is positioned vertically. |

incremental coordinates | A series of numerical positions that use the previous position as the point of origin. |

linear interpolation | A movement along two or more axes simultaneously that creates a straight line. |

machine zero | The position located at the farthest possible distance in a positive direction along the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. This position is permanently set for each particular CNC machine. |

machining center | A sophisticated CNC mill that can perform multiple machining operations in the same setup with a variety of tools. |

origin | The fixed, central point in the Cartesian coordinate system. The origin has a numerical value of zero. |

part program | A series of numerical instructions used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to machine a specific workpiece. |

program zero | The position that acts as the origin for the part program of a particular workpiece. This position is unique to each workpiece design, and it is selected by the part programmer. |

right angle | An angle formed by two lines that are perpendicular to one another. The corner of a piece of paper forms a right angle. |

right-hand rule | A quick reference that shows the location of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. A person displays his or her right hand, and the first three fingers from the right each represent the X-, Y-, and Z-axis in order. |

rotational axes | The axes that describe turning or rotation around the linear axes. |

spindle | The main component of the machine tool that rotates. On the machining center, the spindle holds a cutting tool. On the turning center, the spindle holds the workpiece. |

turning center | A sophisticated CNC lathe that specializes in turning, boring, drilling, and threading operations, all at the same location. |

vertical milling machine | A milling machine with a worktable that is parallel to the ground and a spindle that is positioned vertically. |

workpiece | A part that is being worked on. It may be subject to cutting, welding, forming, or other operations. |

worktable | The table that supports a workpiece during a manufacturing operation. |

X-axis | The linear axis representing motions and positions that travel the longest distance parallel to the worktable. |

Y-axis | The linear axis representing motions and positions that travel the shortest distance parallel to the worktable. |

Z-axis | The linear axis that represents motions and positions perpendicular to the worktable. The Z-axis is always parallel to the spindle. |