Robot Sensors 150

This class describes the various types of sensors that provide feedback data to robots. It also explains the categories of sensors and shows how sensors are used in industrial robotics.

Class Details

Class Name:
Robot Sensors 150
Description:
This class describes the various types of sensors that provide feedback data to robots. It also explains the categories of sensors and shows how sensors are used in industrial robotics.
Version:
1.0
Difficulty:
Beginner
Number of Lessons:
15
Additional Language:
Spanish

Class Outline

  • Objectives
  • Robot Sensors
  • Sensor Usage
  • Robot Controller
  • Sensor Types
  • Contact Sensors
  • Limit Switches
  • Noncontact Sensors
  • Proximity Sensors
  • Ultrasonic Sensors
  • Photoelectric Sensors
  • Robot Vision
  • Camera Applications
  • Sensors and Safety
  • Summary

Objectives

  • Describe robot sensors.
  • Describe sensor usage for industrial robots.
  • Explain the role of the controller for robot sensors.
  • Indentify common types of sensors.
  • Describe contact sensors.
  • Describe limit switches.
  • Describe noncontact sensors.
  • Describe proximity sensors.
  • Describe ultrasonic sensors.
  • Describe photoelectric sensors.
  • Describe robot vision.
  • Describe robot camera applications.
  • Describe the role of sensors in robot safety.

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
actuator A device that converts an electrical control signal into mechanical motion.
awareness safety device A safety device that stops a robot when an object blocks a light field or presses against a mat. Also known as a presence-sensing device.
breakaway A type of connection between the robot's wrist and end-effector that causes the robot to stop when too much force is applied to the end-effector. Breakaways are intended to protect equipment rather than people.
cabinet An enclosure containing a robot's controller, axis control module, input/output module, and power supplies.
central processing unit The main device that processes information and carries out instructions in a robot. The CPU can also be known as the controller or processor.
contact sensor A type of sensor that detects physical contact with an object or surface. Contact sensors for robots include tactile, force, and collision sensors.
controller The main device that processes information and carries out instructions in a robot. Also known as the CPU or processor.
electromechanical sensor A safety device that stops a robot when something comes into contact with a probe or contact bar.
end-effector The end component of a robotic arm that is shaped like a hand or like a specialized tool. Also known as end-of-arm tool (EOAT).
industrial robot A programmable mechanical device that is used in place of a person to perform dangerous or repetitive tasks with a high degree of accuracy.
input A device, usually a type of sensor, that sends information into a robot.
input/output module The jack where an input/output device is physically connected to a robot. Inputs and outputs allow the robot to interact with its environment.
inspection The process of observing and comparing parts to identify and correct any defects. Inspection robots are used many areas, including electronics manufacturing, aerospace and automotive automation, food quality inspection, and print quality inspection.
light curtain A field of light that stops a robot when the light is blocked by an object.
light emitting diode A semiconductor device that emits a narrow spectrum of light in a forward direction. Also known as LED.
limit switch A type of mechanical sensor that requires physical contact to detect the presence or absence of an object. Limit switches are the first type of sensor to be used.
noncontact sensor A type of sensor that detects changes in light or an electromagnetic field. Noncontact sensors for robots include proximity sensors and vision sensors such as photoelectric sensors and cameras.
operating distance The distance of the sensor from the target while operating. Some sensors have ranges as small as a few millimeters, while others can detect objects from hundreds of feet away.
output A device that performs a mechanical action after receiving the electrical signal to do so from the controller.
photoelectric sensor A type of sensor that detects the presence of an object through the use of a beam of light. Photoelectric sensors have an extremely broad sensing range, from a few millimeters to 100 feet away.
photoreceiver The part of a photoelectric sensor that detects a beam of light. The photoreceiver may be in a separate unit, or enclosed in the same unit as the phototransmitter.
phototransmitter The part of a photoelectric sensor that emits a beam of light. The phototransmitter may be in a separate unit, or enclosed in the same unit as the photoreceiver.
PLC Programmable Logic Controller. A processor driven device that uses logic-based software to provide electrical control to machines.
power supply unit A separate power supply that provides DC voltage to a robot’s outputs and controller.
precision limit switches A class of limit switches used for applications that require repeatable accuracy within a small range. For example, a precision limit switch would be used to return an electronic scale to its original start position (zero) after an object has been weighed.
presence-sensing device A safety device that stops a robot when an object blocks a light field or presses against a mat. Also known as an awareness safety device.
presence-sensing mat A safety device that stops a robot when it detects weight.
proximity sensor A device that uses an electronic sensing field to detect the presence of an object. Proximity sensors do not have physical contact with the target.
sensor A device that detects the presence or absence of an object, or certain properties of that object, and provides feedback. Robots use sensors to interact with their environment.
tolerance An acceptable deviation from a desired dimension that still meets specifications.
ultrasonic sensor A type of sensor that uses sound waves to detect a target. Ultrasonic sensors are the best type of sensor for detecting liquids, clear objects, or irregularly shaped objects.