Pneumatic Power Sources 312

“Pneumatic Power Sources” provides a comprehensive overview of the compressors that allow a pneumatic system to perform work. Users will become familiar with the different types of compressors that may be used in a pneumatic system, as well as the various sources that power these compressors. Users will also gain an understanding of how each unique type of compressor impacts the efficiency and effectiveness of a pneumatic system.

Jet engines, heavy construction equipment, and a variety of manufacturing tools would not be possible without compressors. After taking this class, users will be able to identify the different types of compressors that compress air, and the power sources that compressors to perform work.

Class Details

Class Name:
Pneumatic Power Sources 312
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Advanced
Number of Lessons:
16
Related 1.0 Class:
Pneumatic Power Sources 215

Class Outline

  • Introduction to Pneumatic Power Sources
  • Flow Rate
  • Air Receivers
  • Prime Movers
  • Positive Displacement and Dynamic Compressors
  • Piston Compressors
  • Pneumatic Power Sources Review
  • Single- and Multi-Stage Compressors
  • Vane Compressors
  • Lobe Compressors
  • Rotary Screw Compressors
  • Compressor Review
  • Axial Compressors
  • Centrifugal Compressors
  • Compressor Selection
  • Pneumatic Power Sources Class Review

Objectives

  • Describe how a pneumatic system transmits power.
  • Describe the variables that determine gas flow rate.
  • Describe the purpose of the air receiver.
  • Describe common prime movers for pneumatic systems.
  • Contrast between positive displacement and dynamic compressors.
  • Describe the characteristics of piston compressors.
  • Describe compressor stages.
  • Describe the characteristics of vane compressors.
  • Describe the characteristics of lobe compressors.
  • Describe the characteristics of rotary screw compressors.
  • Describe the characteristics of axial compressors.
  • Describe the characteristics of centrifugal compressors.
  • Describe the factors that affect compressor selection.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
aftercoolers A component that cools compressed air coming from a compressor. An aftercooler is a type of heat exchanger that also removes moisture.
air receiver A component that stores compressed gas. Air receivers help stockpile a constant supply of pressurized gas.
air receiver An air storage tank used with pneumatic systems that balances air compressor capacity and airflow demand. An air receiver maintains a constant supply of compressed gas for the system.
axial compressors A type of dynamic compressor in which gas flows parallel to the rotation of the axis. Axial compressors are used in jet engines.
axial compressors A type of dynamic compressor. In an axial compressor, gas flows parallel to the rotation of the axis.
blowers The rotating blades inside a lobe compressor. A blower spins, providing the centrifugal force that creates the vacuum seal.
cam ring An external rotor casing. The cam ring in a vane pump remains stationary as the rotor turns.
capacity A pneumatic variable that indicates the volume of fluid a component can contain. Capacity is also used occasionally to indicate flow rate.
centrifugal compressors A type of dynamic compressor that compresses air and expels it using centrifugal force from a rotating wheel with radial vanes. Centrifugal compressors are often used for fans and cooling units.
centrifugal compressors A type of dynamic compressor that compresses air and expels it with a centrifugal force from a rotating wheel with radial vanes. Centrifugal compressors are often used for fans and cooling units.
centrifugal force An apparent outward force, in relation to a center of rotation. Centrifugal force is directed outward and away from the center of a rotating object.
circumference The distance around a curve or circle. The circumference is the outer perimeter of a circle.
compressor A component that pressurizes ambient air and directs it into a pneumatic system. Compressors squeeze the air and move it under pressure.
condense To change from gas to vapor or liquid. Moisture condenses when hot air cools and expands.
counter-rotating The spinning of components in directions opposite to one another. Counter-rotating interconnected screws provide compression in a rotary screw compressor.
crankshaft A rod that spins and drives a piston compressor. The crankshaft is powered by a prime mover.
cubic feet per minute cfm. A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute.
cubic feet per minute cfm. A measurement of airflow. Cubic feet per minute indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute.
cubic meters per minute A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic meters of air pass by a stationary point in one minute.
diesel motor A type of internal combustion engine, controlled by a throttle. A diesel motor is a prime mover often used for mobile pneumatic applications.
diffuser A part of a centrifugal compressor that transforms the high-speed low-pressure gas into higher pressure. Diffusers reduce speed and broaden air flow.
dry rotary screw compressors A type of rotary screw compressor that delivers air without the use of lubrication. Dry rotary screw compressors may be used to meet specific environmental regulations.
dynamic compressors A type of compressor that delivers larger volumes of air at lower pressures. Common types of dynamic compressors include centrifugal and axial compressors.
electric motor A machine that converts electricity into mechanical energy or motion. An electric motor is a type of prime mover for a pneumatic system.
flow rate A pneumatic power variable that describes how much air is being moved and how much work is being performed. Flow rate is usually measured in cubic feet per minute or cubic meters per minute.
fluid power Power derived from the motion and pressure of a fluid, such as water, oil, or air. Hydraulics and pneumatics are sources of fluid power.
gas turbine engines A type of rotary engine driven by high-speed gases. Gas turbine engines convert chemical energy into mechanical energy by internal combustion.
horsepower A unit of power used to describe the strength of a pneumatic component. One horsepower equals 746 watts.
horsepower A unit of power used to describe the work output of a component. One horsepower equals 746 watts.
impellers The rotating blades of a lobe compressor. An impeller spins to make the centrifugal force that creates the vacuum seal.
intercooler A component that cools air inside a compressor. An intercooler is a type of heat exchanger that also removes moisture.
internal combustion engines A type of engine in which heat energy and mechanical energy are produced inside the engine. Internal combustion engines include gas turbines and types of diesel motors.
liquid ring compressor A type of vane compressor that expels liquid using centrifugal force to create a liquid ring that forms a seal. Liquid ring compressors are dust and oil free but not very efficient compared to other compressors.
lobe compressors A compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from two interlocking gear-type rotors called lobes. Lobe compressors are also known as impellers or blowers.
lobes The portion of a lobe compressor impeller that interlocks. Lobes provide the ability to compress air.
maximum allowable working pressure MAWP. The pressure rating that indicates the maximum pressure a conductor should experience in service. Maximum allowable working pressure is also called working pressure.
maximum operating pressure The maximum pressure at the compressor's outlet. Maximum operating pressure is used to specify the compressor.
multi-stage compressors A type of compressor that compresses air to the required pressure in multiple stages with cooling in between stages. Multi-stage compressors are often used for higher pressures.
newtons per square meter A unit of pressure. A newton per square meter is also known as a pascal, which is derived from the International System of Units (SI).
pascal unit Pa. A unit of pressure. A pascal unit is also known as newtons per square meter.
piston compressor An air compressor that uses a piston and inlet and outlet check valves to allow fluid through a pneumatic system. A piston compressor uses a piston driven by a rotating crankshaft to pressurize air in a pneumatic system.
pneumatic power Power caused by the motion and control of gas, such as air, under pressure. Pneumatic power systems convert energy from pressurized gas into mechanical motion.
positive displacement compressors A type of compressor that delivers a fixed volume of air at high pressures. Common types of positive displacement compressors include piston compressors and rotary screw compressors.
potential energy Stored energy with the potential to do work. An actuator converts potential energy to kinetic energy.
pounds per square inch A measurement of pressure. Psi is an abbreviation for pounds per square inch.
pounds per square inch psi. A unit in the English measuring system used to measure pressure. One pound per square inch equals approximately 6.8948 kilopascals.
prime mover The component of a pneumatic system that powers the compressor. Prime movers are components such as engines or motors.
prime mover The component of a pneumatic system that powers the compressor. Prime movers include electric motors, gas powered motors, and turbine engines.
reciprocating compressors A compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from a component that moves back and forth. Reciprocating compressors commonly have a pistons as components.
revolutions per minute rpm. A unit of measurement that measures the speed of a fluid component. Revolutions per minutes indicates the number of full rotations a fluid component makes in one minute.
rotary screw compressor A pneumatic compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from two interlocking threaded cylinders. Rotary screw compressors have male-female thread interaction that traps and compresses air.
rotary screw compressors A pneumatic compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from two interlocking threaded cylinders. The rotary screw compressor has screws that trap and compress air.
rotor The main spinning portion of a rotary compressor. The rotor has slots that house the vanes in the compressor.
single-stage compressor A type of compressor that compresses air to the required pressure in a single operation. Single-stage compressors are often used for lower pressures.
single-stage compressors A type of compressor that compresses air to the required pressure in a single operation. Single-stage compressors are often used for lower pressures.
stage A method that handles the various pressure requirements in a compressor. Compressors come in single and multiple stages.
staging A method that handles the various pressure requirements in a compressor. Compressors come in single and multiple stages.
standard temperature and pressure STP. A industry standard set of conditions for measurement. Standard temperature and pressure must be specified in a compressor before determining the volume of flow.
stators A stationary component used together with a rotating part in an axial compressor. The stator contains ports that redirect fluid flow.
two-stage compressors A pneumatic actuator that directs energy in both directions. Two-stage compressors are used for larger loads.
vacuum The state of negative pressure. A pneumatic pump works by creating a vacuum in the closed pneumatic system.
vane A retractable spring-loaded mechanism that extends radially from the center of a compressor rotor. Vanes trap and move fluid to an outlet port.
vane compressor A pneumatic compressor that consists of a rotor mounted off-center in a circular cavity. In a vane compressor, as the rotor spins, vanes trap and compress air.
water trap A part of an air receiver that traps and drains away the condensation formed due to reducing the air temperature in the receiver.
wet rotary screw compressors A type of rotary screw compressor that delivers air with the use of oil to lubricate the screws. Wet rotary screw compressors are more efficient than dry rotary compressors.
work The result of a force applied to an object and the distance through which the force is applied. In an equation, work is force multiplied by distance.
working pressure The actual pressure at the operating point. Working pressure is used when selecting valves, actuators, and other devices.