Additive Manufacturing Methods and Materials 140

Additive Manufacturing Methods and Materials provides users with an overview of the different processes used in additive manufacturing. This class also details the materials used in each process and any additional considerations specific to those materials.

Class Details

Class Name:
Additive Manufacturing Methods and Materials 140
Description:
Additive Manufacturing Methods and Materials provides users with an overview of the different processes used in additive manufacturing. This class also details the materials used in each process and any additional considerations specific to those materials.
Version:
1.0
Difficulty:
Beginner
Number of Lessons:
13
Additional Language:
Spanish

Class Outline

  • Objectives
  • Additive Manufacturing Methods
  • Material Extrusion
  • Material Extrusion: Materials and Hazards
  • Directed Energy Deposition
  • Directed Energy Deposition: Materials and Applications
  • Material Jetting
  • Binder Jetting
  • Powder Bed Fusion
  • Powder Bed Fusion: Methods and Applications
  • Vat Photopolymerization
  • Sheet Lamination
  • Summary

Objectives

  • Define additive manufacturing.
  • Describe material extrusion systems.
  • Describe the hazards associated with materials used in material extrusion.
  • Describe directed energy deposition systems.
  • Describe directed energy deposition materials and applications.
  • Describe material jetting systems.
  • Describe binder jetting systems.
  • Describe powder bed fusion systems.
  • Describe select laser sintering and directed metal laser sintering.
  • Describe vat photopolymerzation systems.
  • Describe sheet lamination systems.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
ABS Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. A thermoplastic material used to make filaments for additive manufacturing applications. ABS can emit potentially hazardous ultrafine particles when heated.
additive manufacturing AM. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
alloys A uniform mixture of two or more materials. One of the materials must be a metal.
AM Additive manufacturing. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
BASS Break-away support systems. An additive manufacturing support material that can be removed from the build by hand. BASS are used in material extrusion methods.
binder jetting An additive manufacturing process in which liquid binder is used to join powder materials. Binder jetting systems use powdered plaster, metal, or sand.
break-away support systems BASS. An additive manufacturing support material that can be removed from the build by hand. BASS are used in material extrusion methods.
build plate The platform in an additive manufacturing system that supports the in-process part. Materials are deposited onto the build platform during the operation.
casting A part that is formed by pouring molten material into a mold. The material cools and solidifies into its final shape.
ceramic A hard, brittle material that can withstand high temperatures and resist corrosion. Powdered ceramics are sometimes used in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing systems.
composite A material made by combining two or more of the following groups: metals, plastics, and ceramics. Composites are sometimes used in directed energy deposition.
cured Permanently bonding and solidifying materials. Some additive manufacturing materials require extra heat or ultraviolet light to cure.
direct metal laser sintering DMLS. An additive manufacturing process that uses a laser to bond areas in a bed of powdered metal. DMLS is a powder bed fusion method that uses metal material.
directed energy deposition An additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to melt materials as they are deposited. Directed energy deposition is often used with powdered or wire metal.
DMLS Direct metal laser sintering. An additive manufacturing process that uses a laser to bond areas in a bed of powdered metal. DMLS is a powder bed fusion method that uses metal material.
electron beam A narrow stream of electrons that create focused thermal energy. Electron beams are used in some additive manufacturing processes to fuse materials.
extruding To force a material, usually a polymer, through a nozzle or a die. Some additive manufacturing processes build a product by extruding material onto a platform.
extrusion heads A nozzle or die that shapes and dispenses semi-solid material. Extrusion heads are used in fused deposition modeling (FDM).
FDM Fused deposition modeling. An additive manufacturing process that builds objects by extruding layers of material. FDM usually uses thermoplastic materials.
filament A thin strand of material. Some additive manufacturing methods use coils of thermoplastic material to make parts.
finishing A process applied to a manufactured part that goes beyond making the part to the correct shape and size. Sanding, heat treating, and painting are examples of finishing.
fused deposition modeling FDM. An additive manufacturing process that builds objects by extruding layers of material. FDM usually uses thermoplastic materials.
heat treating Controlled heating and cooling processes used to change the structure of a solid metal and alter its properties. Some parts made in additive manufacturing systems must be heat treated after initial processing.
inert Chemically inactive or having a limited ability to form chemical reactions. Many shielding gases are inert.
investment casting A casting process that creates intricate shapes using an expendable wax pattern and expendable ceramic mold. Investment casting is also called precision casting.
laser A device that generates an intense beam of light that can be very precisely aimed and controlled. Lasers are used to fuse together layers of material in various additive manufacturing processes.
liquid polymer A fluid substance with a repeating molecular structure. In additive manufacturing, liquid polymers are solidified using lasers or ultraviolet light.
material extrusion An additive manufacturing process that uses a nozzle to dispense material, usually a thermoplastic filament, onto a support. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an example of a material extrusion.
material jetting An additive manufacturing process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited onto a build platform. Material jetting systems use a photopolymer that is cured by ultraviolet light.
microstructure The shape and alignment of microscopic components of a material. Microstructure is key in determining hardness, toughness, and other properties.
oxidizing A process in which a substance combines and chemically reacts with oxygen. Some metals oxidize and develop corrosion when exposed to air and moisture.
photopolymer A polymer that cures and hardens when exposed to light. Photopolymers are used in material jetting and vat photopolymerization systems.
polymer A material having long chains of large, linked molecules. Plastics are synthetic polymers.
post-processing A term used to refer to any of a variety of finishing processes that occur after a part has been manufactured. Curing and heat treating are examples of post-processing steps.
powder bed fusion An additive manufacturing process that uses adhesives, heat, or light to bond areas in a container of powder plastic, metal, ceramic, or other material. Select laser sintering (SLS) and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) are powder bed fusion methods.
rapid tooling A method of manufacturing a small number of tools before developing a finished product using more traditional manufacturing methods. Rapid tooling is an extension of rapid prototyping.
resolution The amount of detail that an AM machine can build in a set amount of space. A higher resolution means that a machine can build more detailed parts.
selective laser sintering SLS. An additive manufacturing process that uses a laser to bond areas of material in a powdered bed. SLS is a powder bed fusion method that uses plastic or ceramic materials.
sheet lamination An additive manufacturing process that forms an object by bonding sheets of material together using an adhesive, heat, and pressure.
shielding gas A gas that surrounds and protects melted metal from oxidation. Shielding gases are used in some directed energy systems.
sinter To heat powdered metal in order to fuse the powdered material together to create a solid shape. Sintering is used during the powder bed fusion process.
SLS Selective laser sintering. An additive manufacturing process that uses a laser to bond areas of material in a powdered bed. SLS is a powder bed fusion method that uses plastic or ceramic materials.
sodium hydroxide A caustic compound made of sodium, oxygen, and hydrogen. Sodium hydroxide is often used in a base solution to remove support material in additive manufacturing processes.
solvents A chemical substance used to dissolve another material. Some additive manufacturing processes use liquid solvents to remove support material after the build.
stereolithography An additive manufacturing process in which a liquid is selectively cured using light. Stereolithography may also be known as vat photopolymerization.
substrate The material onto which a coating is applied. The surface is the top portion of the substrate that directly interacts with the coating.
subtractive manufacturing Any process in which a piece of raw material is machined into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. Subtractive manufacturing is another name for traditional machining processes.
superalloys A complex metal alloy designed to perform under intense conditions. Superalloys consist of numerous alloying elements and often exhibit high strength and heat resistance.
support material Additional material used in the additive manufacturing process to support the product as it is being constructed. Support material is removed from the product as part of the additive manufacturing process.
thermoplastic A type of synthetic polymer that can be repeatedly heated and shaped. Thermoplastics are often used in additive manufacturing extrusion methods.
tolerances An acceptable deviation from a desired dimension that still meets specifications. Tolerances indicate the allowable difference between a physical feature and its intended design.
UFP Ultrafine particle. Microscopic airborne particulates from natural or industrial sources. Inhaling ultrafine particles created when heating thermoplastic can lead to respiratory and nervous system problems.
ultrafine particles UFP. Microscopic airborne particulates from natural or industrial sources. Inhaling ultrafine particles created when heating thermoplastic can lead to respiratory and nervous system problems.
ultrasonic welding An industrial technique that uses acoustic, high-frequency vibrations to permanently bond together two separate components in order to make one new part. Ultrasonic welding is used by some sheet lamination machines.
ultraviolet UV. Light not visible to the naked eye because it consists of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light. Some additive manufacturing systems use UV light to bond or cure materials.
UV Ultraviolet. Light not visible to the naked eye because it consists of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light. Some additive manufacturing systems use UV light to bond or cure materials.
vat photopolymerization An additive manufacturing process in which a liquid is selectively cured using light. Vat photopolymerization may also be called stereolithography.