# Pneumatic Power Variables 205

This class discusses the variables involved in pneumatic power transmission and how they describe the capabilities of a pneumatic system.

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## Class Details

Class Name:
Pneumatic Power Variables 205
Description:
This class discusses the variables involved in pneumatic power transmission and how they describe the capabilities of a pneumatic system.
Version:
1.0
Difficulty:
Intermediate
Number of Lessons:
17
Spanish
Related 2.0 Class:
Pneumatic Power Variables 311

## Class Outline

• Objectives
• What Is Pneumatic Power?
• Pneumatic Power Variables
• Pressure
• Pressure Ratings
• Ideal Pressures
• Temperature
• Volume, Pressure, and Temperature
• Flow Rate
• Effect of Flow Rate
• Displacement
• Speed
• Horsepower and Torque
• Noise
• Efficiency
• Choosing Pneumatic Components
• Summary

## Objectives

• Define pneumatic power.
• Describe pneumatic power variables.
• Describe pressure.
• Define common pressure ratings.
• Identify the ideal pressure of a pneumatic system.
• Identify a proper working temperature range.
• Describe the relationship between volume, pressure, and temperature.
• Describe flow rate.
• Describe the effects of flow rate.
• Define displacement.
• Describe speed.
• Describe the relationship betweeen horsepower and torque.
• Describe noise in a pneumatic power system.
• Define efficiency.
• Describe the influences on the choice of components.

## Certifications

MSSC
• MSSC Maintenance Awareness

## Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
actual cubic feet per minute A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Actual cubic feet per minute is also called cubic feet per minute and is abbreviated acfm.
actual output The amount of power a pneumatic power system actually delivers.
actuator A component such as a cylinder, motor, or rotary device that directly helps convert pneumatic energy into mechanical energy.
aftercooler A component that cools compressed air coming from a compressor. An aftercooler is a type of heat exchanger that also removes moisture.
A-weighted decibel scale A decibel scale that reflects the exclusion of frequencies that humans do not normally hear.
bar A unit of pressure equal to 100,000 pascals or 14.504 psi.
bleed out To remove condensed water from the receiver area of a pneumatic system.
burst pressure The pressure rating that indicates the pressure at which a component failed during a pressure rating test.
capacity A pneumatic variable that indicates the volume of fluid a component can contain. Capacity is also used occasionally to indicate flow rate.
centimeters per minute In the metric or SI system, the number of centimeters that a pneumatic component such as a piston actuator travels in one minute. Centimeters per minute is abbreviated cpm.
centimeters per second In the metric or SI system, the number of centimeters that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one second. Centimeters per second is abbreviated cm/s.
compression The act of applying pressure to a gas in order to increase density and lower volume. Compression also raises the temperature in pneumatic systems.
compressor A component that pressurizes ambient air and directs it into a pneumatic system.
conductor A component such as a pipe, tube, or hose that conveys gases throughout a pneumatic system.
cubic centimeters A measurement of volume that is abbreviated cm³.
cubic feet per minute A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Cubic feet per minute is abbreviated cfm.
cubic inches A measurement of volume that is abbreviated cu in or in³.
cubic meters per hour A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic meters of air pass by a stationary point in one hour. Cubic meters per hour is abbreviated m³/hr.
cubic meters per minute A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic meters of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Cubic meters per minute is abbreviated m³/min.
cycle One complete revolution or rotation of a rotary pneumatic component, or one complete extension and retraction of a linear pneumatic component.
decibel A unit of measurement that describes the intensity of a sound wave.
displacement A pneumatic power variable that indicates how much air is moved by a pneumatic compressor in one cycle. Displacement is measured in cubic inches per revolution or cubic centimeters per revolution.
effective volume The flow rate that a pneumatic power system actually delivers during operation.
efficiency The amount of power output by a fluid power system compared to the amount of power input.
flow The directional movement of air in a pneumatic system. Flow in a fluid system can be laminar or turbulent.
flow capacity A pneumatic power variable that describes how much air is being moved and how much work is being performed. Flow capacity, or flow rate, is usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (lpm).
flow rate A pneumatic power variable that describes how much air is being moved and how much work is being performed. Flow rate is usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (lpm).
fluid power Power derived from the motion and pressure of a fluid, such as water, oil, or air. Hydraulics and pneumatics are sources of fluid power.
foot-pound A measurement of force indicating the amount of energy needed to move one pound a distance of one foot.
force The push or pull that gives energy to an object.
force multiplication The exponential increase in available power usually associated with tools and power transmission systems.
frequency The number of sound wave oscillations or vibrations in a unit of time. Measured in Hertz (HZ), high frequencies involve more wave cycles than low frequencies in the same amount of time.
horsepower A unit of power used to describe the strength of a pneumatic component. One horsepower equals 746 watts.
inches per minute In the English system, the number of linear inches that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one minute. Inches per minute is abbreviated ipm.
inches per second In the English system, the number of linear inches that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one second. Inches per second is abbreviated ips.
intercooler A component that cools air inside a compressor. An intercooler is a type of heat exchanger that also removes moisture.
laminae Parallel streams or layers of fluid that flow together and are indicative of laminar flow in a fluid system. The presence of laminae is desirable.
laminar flow The type of flow in a fluid system characterized by the presence of laminae, or parallel layers of fluid. Also called streamline flow, laminar flow is desirable because of its efficiency.
linear motion Motion that takes place along a straight line.
maximum allowable working pressure MAWP. The pressure rating that indicates the maximum pressure a conductor should experience in service. MAWP is called working pressure.
mechanical power Power created by the physical interaction and motion of tools and components.
megapascal A unit of pressure equal to one million pascals.
millimeters per second In the metric or SI system, the number of millimeters that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one second. Millimeters per second is abbreviated mm/s.
Newton-meter In the metric system, the unit used to measure power and torque. The Newton-meter is abbreviated as N-m.
newtons per square meter A unit of pressure. A newton per square meter is also known as a pascal, which is derived from the International System of Units (SI).
noise Any unwanted sound. Noise at high decibels is a hearing hazard.
open system A pneumatic system that draws air from the surrounding environment, compresses and uses it to perform work, and then vents it back into the atmosphere.
output A pneumatic power variable that describes how much air is being moved and how much work is being performed. Output, or flow rate, is usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (lpm).
peak value The point at which horsepower and torque are highest. As speeds increase after the peak values, horsepower and torque decrease.
pneumatic power Power derived from the motion and pressure of a gas, such as air.
pneumatic power variable A characteristic of a pneumatic system or component that can be measured and quantified.
positive displacement A type of compressor that moves a fixed amount of air during each cycle.
pounds per square inch A unit of pressure. Pounds per square inch is abbreviated psi.
power The rate of doing work in a specified period of time.
pressure The amount of force applied upon an object. Pressure is calculated by dividing force by an area.
pressure rating An indication of the amount of pressure a fluid conductor can withstand.
prime mover The component of a pneumatic system that powers the compressor.
productivity rate The amount of work that can be accomplished in a given time period.
receiver A component that stores compressed gas and helps stockpile a constant supply of pressurized gas.
recovery time The time it takes for a compressor to replace the pressure in a receiver during operation.
revolutions per minute A unit of measurement that indicates the number of revolutions a pneumatic component makes in one minute. Revolutions per minute is abbreviated rpm.
rotary motion Motion that takes place around a point. Rotary motion is circular.
safety ratio A figure that establishes the relationship between the burst pressure and working pressure. A component with a safety ratio of 4-to-1 will likely fail if the operating pressure reaches a level 4 times the normal level.
Society of Petroleum Engineers An organization of engineers that sets industry standards concerning the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas resources.
speed The amount of distance an object travels in a given period of time. Speed is used to measure both linear and rotational movement.
standard cubic feet per minute A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute under standard conditions of temperature, pressure, and humidity. Standard cubic feet per minute is abbreviated scfm.
standard temperature and pressure A standard set of conditions for measurement. STP is set by industry standards authorities and allows uniform comparisons between sets of data.
streamline flow The type of flow in a fluid system characterized by the presence of laminae, or parallel streams of fluid. Also called laminar flow, streamline flow is desirable because of its efficiency.
swept volume An indication of the displacement of a pneumatic component that is equal to the volume of the component actually covered by a rotor or piston.
system delivery pressure The amount of pressure at the output end of a compressor or receiver. System delivery pressure is used to specify the capability of compressors and is also known as the system working pressure.
system operating pressure The amount of pressure nearest the point of performing work at the output end of a pneumatic system. The system operating pressure is used to specify the capabilty of valves and actuators.
system working pressure The amount of pressure at the output end of a compressor or receiver. System working pressure is used to specify the capability of compressors and is also known as the system delivery pressure.
theoretical output The amount of power a pneumatic power system is expected to deliver.
theoretical volume The flow rate that a pneumatic power system is expected to deliver.
torque The force exerted in rotation.
turbulent flow The type of flow in a fluid system characterized by fluid moving in a random and chaotic manner. Turbulent flow is not desirable.
valve A mechanism that controls the flow of compressed air in a pneumatic power system. Valves direct air movement and regulate the amount of pressure in a pneumatic system.
vane compressor A pneumatic compressor that consists of a rotor mounted off-center in a circular cavity. As the rotor spins, vanes trap and compress air.
volume A pneumatic power variable that describes both the quantity of gas and the capacity of a component.
watt A unit used to measure power. 746 watts is equal to one horsepower.
work The result of force applied to an object over a distance.
working pressure The pressure rating that indicates the maximum pressure a conductor should experience in service. Working pressure is often called maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP).