Robot Safety 211

"Robot Safety" discusses the different ways to prevent robot accidents. Robot accidents can result in serious injuries or fatalities. Most accidents occur because employees bypass the robot's safeguards.

There are two kinds of safeguarding systems that protect employees from injury when working with robots. Safety devices stop a robot from operating. Presence-sensing mats, for example, end robot operations when the pressure or weight of an employee is detected. Safety barriers prevent employees from accessing or entering dangerous robot work areas. For example, perimeter fences block employee access to areas where robots are working.

Employees must receive training on the robot and wear protective clothing when near the robot. The robot must be installed and maintained as intended by the manufacturer and by authorized personnel only. All robot operators require a certain level of experience and training to work with the robot

Class Details

Class Name:
Robot Safety 211
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Advanced
Number of Lessons:
21
Related 1.0 Class:
Robot Safety 115

Class Outline

  • Industrial Robot Safety
  • Robot Safety Organizations and Publications
  • NIOSH Guidelines for Robot Safety
  • Robot Installation and Maintenance Safety
  • Robot Teaching Methods
  • Robot Safety Training
  • Robot Safety Review
  • Types of Robot Accidents
  • Causes of Robot Accidents
  • Human Error
  • Safeguarding Systems
  • Robot Accidents, Causes, and Safeguarding Review
  • Emergency Stops
  • Presence-sensing Devices
  • Lockout/tagout Devices
  • Two-Hand Control Safety Devices
  • Safety Devices Review
  • Safety Barriers
  • Safety Guards
  • Timed Events
  • Safety and Timed Events Review

Objectives

  • Explain the importance of industrial robot safety.
  • List robot safety organizations and publications.
  • List NIOSH guidelines for robot safety.
  • Describe how to safely install and maintain a robot.
  • Describe different robot teaching methods.
  • Describe proper training for robot safety.
  • Describe the different types of robot accidents.
  • Describe the common causes of robot accidents.
  • Describe how human error affects robot safety.
  • Describe safeguarding systems.
  • Describe emergency stops.
  • Describe presence-sensing safety devices.
  • Describe lockout/tagout.
  • Describe two-hand control devices.
  • Describe safety barriers.
  • Describe the different types of robot safety guards.
  • Describe how timed events impact robot safety.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
11161 Safety of Machinery A publication produced by ISO that sets standards for the design and safeguarding of manufacturing systems. 11161 Safety of Machinery provides employers and employees with the basic safety requirements for integrating manufacturing systems for specific applications.
acceleration The rate at which speed increases. Acceleration occurs during a timed event.
adjustable guards Guards that may be moved or reconfigured to allow for different types of production. Adjustable guards can accommodate different sizes of stock or raw materials.
American National Standards Institute ANSI. A private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates voluntary standards and systems. ANSI is one of several organizations that standardizes relevant safety codes for robot installation.
ANSI/RIA R15.06 A publication produced by ANSI that provides guidelines for manufacturing, installing, and safeguarding robotic systems. ANSI/RIA R15.06 includes information regarding risk assessment when using robots on a manufacturing site.
anti-tie down A type of control that requires the operator to push and release a button on a hand control, or place a finger over a photosensitive cavity to activate equipment. Anti-tie downs require operators to be focused and attentive in order to operate robots.
awareness safety devices Safety devices that stop robots when objects block a light field or press against mats. Awareness safety devices are also known as presence-sensing devices.
breakaway A type of connection between a robot's wrist and end effector that causes the robot to stop when too much force is applied to the end effector. Breakaways are intended to protect equipment rather than people.
clearance An intentional amount of space left between a robot and other surrounding structures or equipment. The proper amount of clearance is necessary to maintain safety of operators and prevent damage to other equipment while robots are operating.
collision accidents Accidents that occur when a robot's movements become unpredictable and a worker is struck by the robot. Collision accidents are also known as impact accidents.
control system A manual or automatic mechanism used to manage dynamic robot processes by adjusting or maintaining physical variables such as temperature, speed, or flow rate. Control system errors can lead to robot accidents.
crushing accidents Accidents that occur when a worker is pushed or pinned against an object by a robot. Crushing accidents can be fatal.
deceleration The rate at which speed decreases. Deceleration occurs during a timed event.
drive Any device that introduces motion into a system. Electric motors, especially servos, are the most common robot drive.
electromagnetic interference Electrical noise in a circuit that interrupts the transmission or reception of a signal. Electromagnetic interference can lead to robot accidents.
electromechanical sensors Safety devices that stop robots. Electromechanical sensors stop robotic movement when something comes into contact with a probe or contact bar.
emergency stop A push button that, when pressed, brings a machine to a safe, rapid stop. Also called an E-stop, the emergency stop is installed on the teach pendant of a robot.
end effector The end component of a robotic arm that is shaped like a hand or a specialized tool. End effectors are also known as end-of-arm tools (EOAT).
equipment accidents Accidents that occur when a robot's parts break and fly off and hit a worker. Equipment accidents may cause injuries which can be minimized by the proper usage of personal protective equipment.
E-stop A push button that, when pressed, brings a machine to a safe, rapid stop. Also called an emergency stop, the E-stop is installed on the teach pendant of a robot.
fixed guards A barrier guard that prohibits access to dangerous operating areas while allowing operators to access parts of the machine. Fixed guards cannot be adjusted.
gravitational force A natural force that pulls heavy objects toward each other due to their masses. Gravitational force can cause a robot to make quick and erratic movements that lead to robot accidents.
Guidelines for Robotics Safety STD 01-12-002 A publication produced by OSHA that provides information on the safe operation of industrial robots. Guidelines for Robotics Safety STD 01-12-002 is used to inform employers and employees of the safety concerns in the robotics field as it grows.
hard hats A lightweight head covering that protects against impact, low-clearance areas, and electric shock. Hard hats are usually made of plastic.
human error The failure of a technician to perform an assigned task correctly. Human error cannot be completely eliminated, but it can be decreased.
hydraulic lines A component such as a pipe, tube, or hose, that delivers power due to the motion and pressure of liquids throughout a system. Hydraulic lines can lead to robot accidents if they rupture.
impact accidents Accidents that occur when a robot's movements become unpredictable and a worker is struck by the robot. Impact accidents are also known as collision accidents.
industrial robots Programmable mechanical devices that are used in place of a person to perform dangerous or repetitive tasks with a high degree of accuracy. Industrial robots are a form of automation.
interlocked guards Barriers with tripping mechanisms that cause machines to stop when guards are moved. Interlocked guards, when tripped, make starting a robot impossible until the guard is replaced.
International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. An international organization that prepares and publishes all standards for electrical, electronic, and related technologies. The International Electrotechnical Commission develops standards that are applied in Europe and other countries.
International Organization for Standardization ISO. A non-governmental organization based in Switzerland that develops and establishes standards, rules, and guidelines designed to ensure that products, processes, and services are fit for their purposes. The International Organization for Standardization took its abbreviation ISK from the Greek word “isos,” which means “equal.”
jumped A term used when a robot's safeguards have been bypassed or disabled for convenience or to save time. Many robot accidents are caused by jumping.
kinetic energy Energy existing due to an object's motion. Kinetic energy can cause a robot to make quick and erratic movements that lead to robot accidents.
lead-through programming A programming method where a robot is placed in teach mode while the trainer manipulates the robot through the different steps of the job. Lead-through programming is conducted by a trainer using a remote teach pendant.
light curtain A field of light that stops a machine when the light is blocked by an object. Light curtains prevent robots from striking workers and equipment.
light curtains A field of light that stops a robot from operating when the light is blocked by an object or human. Light curtains can prevent robot accidents.
lockout device A device such as a lock and key or combination lock. Lockout devices are used to prevent equipment or machinery from being energized.
lockout/tagout A method of protecting employees from accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines that are hazardous to nearby employees. Lockout/tagout is an essential practice for safe repair of machines.
lockout/tagout A method of protecting employees from accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines. Lockout/tagout is an essential practice for safe repair of machines.
motion sensors Devices that detect motion and stop a robot from operating when that motion is identified. Motion sensors can prevent robot accidents.
movement zones Defined areas of space through which a robot can move. This is also known as the work envelope or work cell.
NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. An organization that researches and develops workplace health and safety recommendations. NIOSH, along with OSHA, provides safety information on robotics.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA. A government agency that sets the standards for working conditions in the United States. OSHA ensures that employees work in safe and healthy environments.
OSHA Technical Manual TED 01-00-015 A publication produced by OSHA that provides information on safety related to fixed industrial robots and robot systems. The OSHA Technical Manual TED 01-00-015 covers information about the different functions of industrial robots, how to train them safely, and how to use them in conjunction with other machinery.
pace Maintain a continuous, constant speed of movement. Proper pace of work by robot operators is crucial in ensuring employee safety.
perimeter fence Fences placed outside the work area of the robot. Perimeter fences prevent nearby workers from entering a hazardous space.
personal protective equipment PPE. Any clothing worn or device used to minimize exposure to hazards and prevent injuries. Personal protective equipment may include safety glasses, hard hats, and steel-toed shoes.
photosensor A device that detects the presence of an object or person by the amount of light present. Photosensors are used in presence-sensing devices.
power source A device that generates electricity. A robot must be compatible with the power source of the facility where it is used.
presence-sensing devices Mechanisms used to detect the location of people or objects near hazardous areas of a machine. Presence-sensing devices often use pressure-sensitive mats or light curtains.
presence-sensing mat A safety device that contains sensors to detect weight or pressure. When placed on the floor around hazardous areas, presence-sensing mats can sense an operator's presence and then disengage the machine.
presence-sensing mats A safety device that contains sensors to detect weight or pressure. When placed on the floor around hazardous areas, presence-sensing mats can sense an operator's presence and then disengage the machine.
Preventing the Injury of Workers by Robots 85-103 A publication produced by NIOSH that recommends safety measures for designing robotic systems and training and supervising workers who use them. Preventing the Injury of Workers by Robots 85-103 contains specific guidelines for safeguarding systems when using robots.
program errors A mistake that either disrupts robotic processes or renders a program useless. Program errors can lead to robot accidents.
pushbuttons A manual control device that opens or closes a circuit when pressed. E-stops are often pushbuttons.
Robotic Industries Association RIA. A trade group organized specifically to serve the robotics industry. Member companies of the Robotic Industries Association include leading robot manufacturers, users, system integrators, component suppliers, research groups, and consulting firms.
safeguarding system Any device, barrier, or process that protects a worker from being injured by a machine. The two basic types of safeguarding systems include safety devices and safety barriers.
safeguarding systems Any device, barrier, or process that protects a worker from being injured by a machine. The two basic types of safeguarding systems include safety devices and safety barriers.
safety barriers A movable or permanent structure that keeps employees from entering dangerous areas during a robot's operating cycle. Safety barriers include structures like gates and perimeter fences.
safety barriers A moveable or permanent structure that keeps employees from entering or accessing dangerous areas during a robot's operating cycle. Safety barriers include structures like gates and fences.
safety barriers Constructions that keep employees from entering dangerous areas during a robot's operating cycle. Safety barriers include structures like gates, fences, and safety guards.
safety devices A mechanism that prevents the robot from operating when an employee is near a dangerous area. Safety devices often include lockout/tagout mechanisms.
safety glasses A type of eye protection that shields the eyes. Safety glasses offer protection from impact, dust, chips, splashes, and sometimes ultraviolet light.
safety guards A component that prevents an employee from accessing dangerous areas of a robotic system. Safety guards are safety barriers that keep employees from reaching over, under, around, or through them.
safety trip A safety device that is pressure-sensitive. Safety trips are bars or mats that break a circuit and stop a robot from operating.
self-adjusting guards Guards that cover a hazardous area until stock is pushed into the point of operation, moving the guard. Self-adjusting guards can be made of plastic or metal.
spatter Liquid metal droplets that are expelled from the welding process. Spatter can cause robot accidents.
steel-toed shoes Footwear that contains a piece of steel placed in the toe of a shoe or boot. Steel-toed shoes protect users' feet from injuries related to falling objects and other dangers.
stock Material available in the form of sheets, plates, or long bars. Stock is used to make parts during manufacturing.
switch A control device that can make or break a circuit by closing or opening. Switches can be either manual, mechanical, or automatic.
tagout devices Prominent warning devices, such as tags, that can be securely attached to a machine or power source. Tagout devices alert employees that equipment is not to be operated until the tag is removed.
teach pendant A hand-held device that can be used to program a robot and control its movements. Operators should never enter a robot's work cell without a teach pendant.
teach pendant A hand-held device that can be used to program a robot and control its movements. Operators should never enter a robot's work cell without the teach pendant.
timed events Safety measures in which a robot automatically comes to a stop if it does not move from point A to point B. Timed events must happen within a certain time limit.
trapping accidents Accidents that occur when a worker's arm, leg, or other body parts are pinned between the robot and other equipment. Trapping accidents can lead to loss of limbs.
two-hand control device A control device designed to protect a worker's hands. Two-hand control devices require the worker to have both hands on the control device before the machine starts.
Underwriters Laboratories UL. A nationally recognized testing laboratory that is dedicated to product safety testing and certification. Underwriters Laboratories wrote many standards for safe devices before OSHA formalized the process.
walk-through programming A programming method for robots where a trainer physically moves the robot through different steps of the job process. Walk-through programming poses more safety risks to the trainer than lead-through programming.
work cell The defined area of space through which a robot can move. The work cell, also known as the work envelope, is dangerous for operators to enter unless the robot is powered down.
work envelope The defined area of space through which a robot can move. The work envelope, also known as the work cell, is dangerous for operators to enter unless the robot is powered down.