FCAW Applications 321

“FCAW Applications” provides a comprehensive overview of how to perform FCAW processes. Before beginning FCAW, it is important to prepare the joint and select the appropriate electrode. During FCAW, the welder controls the electrode's orientation and travel speed. Welders must also be aware of many FCAW-specific variables, such as amperage, voltage, and shielding gas, as well as the effects of such variables. Understanding variables helps prevent FCAW weld discontinuities and defects, such as excessive spatter, porosity, and slag inclusion.

After taking this class, users will be familiar with many of the considerations and variables that go into using FCAW processes, which is essential to producing quality welds and avoiding weld discontinuities and defects. The ability to recognize and avoid common welding issues reduces scrapped parts and increases quality.

Class Details

Class Name:
FCAW Applications 321
Description:
“FCAW Applications” provides a comprehensive overview of how to perform FCAW processes. Before beginning FCAW, it is important to prepare the joint and select the appropriate electrode. During FCAW, the welder controls the electrode's orientation and travel speed. Welders must also be aware of many FCAW-specific variables, such as amperage, voltage, and shielding gas, as well as the effects of such variables. Understanding variables helps prevent FCAW weld discontinuities and defects, such as excessive spatter, porosity, and slag inclusion.

After taking this class, users will be familiar with many of the considerations and variables that go into using FCAW processes, which is essential to producing quality welds and avoiding weld discontinuities and defects. The ability to recognize and avoid common welding issues reduces scrapped parts and increases quality.
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Advanced
Number of Lessons:
27
Additional Language:
Chinese
Related 1.0 Class:
FCAW Applications 230

Class Outline

  • FCAW: Overview
  • Choosing FCAW
  • Electrode Selection
  • Electrode Selection: Metal Properties
  • Review: FCAW Basics
  • Joint Design
  • Joint Preparation
  • Electrode Orientation: Work Angle
  • Electrode Orientation: Travel Angle
  • Electrode Orientation: Techniques
  • Electrode Orientation: In Action
  • Review: FCAW Preparation
  • Starting the Arc
  • Running Bead: Electrode Extension
  • Running a Bead
  • Running a Bead: In Action
  • Review: FCAW Process
  • Variables: Amperage and Wire Feed Speed
  • Variables: Output Type
  • Variables: Contact Tip to Work Distance
  • Variables: Heat Input
  • Variables: Shielding Gas and Gas Flow
  • Review: FCAW Variables
  • Troubleshooting: FCAW Discontinuities
  • Troubleshooting: FCAW Discontinuities and Defects
  • Troubleshooting: Arc Blow
  • Review: FCAW Troubleshooting

Objectives

  • Describe FCAW processes.
  • Identify the factors to consider when choosing an FCAW process.
  • Describe various factors that affect FCAW electrode selection.
  • Identify important metal properties to consider when choosing FCAW electrodes.
  • Describe joint design for FCAW.
  • Describe joint preparation for FCAW.
  • Describe the work angle for FCAW processes.
  • Describe the travel angle for FCAW processes.
  • Distinguish between backhand and forehand techniques.
  • Describe important aspects of starting the arc in FCAW.
  • Describe electrical extension for FCAW processes.
  • Describe the effects of travel speed on running FCAW beads. Describe the characteristics of FCAW beads.
  • Describe the characteristics of FCAW beads.
  • Describe the relationship between amperage and wire feed speed in FCAW.
  • Describe the ways in which output type affects FCAW processes.
  • Describe the way in which contact tip to work distance affects FCAW processes.
  • Describe the ways in which input heat affects FCAW processes.
  • Describe the ways in which shielding gas and gas flow affect FCAW-G.
  • Describe common FCAW welding discontinuities.
  • Identify common FCAW welding discontinuities and defects.
  • Describe arc blow.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
active gas A gas that reacts with other elements. Active gases used in welding processes include carbon dioxide and oxygen-gas mixtures.
acute An angle that measures between 0 and 90 degrees. Examples of acute angles in welding include travel angles and most work angles.
alloying elements A material that is intentionally added to a material in order to change its properties. Alloying elements can improve the strength, ductility, hardness, and toughness of a finished weld.
aluminum A silvery white metal that is soft, light, and an effective conductor. Aluminum is often one of the main deoxidizers in flux material.
American Welding Society AWS. The non-profit organization that regulates the industrial standards for welding. AWS also promotes the welding industry in the United States.
amperage A measurement of current. FCAW amperage is determined by the speed in which the electrode is fed through the welding gun.
Ar/CO2 A shielding gas mixture composed of argon and carbon dioxide. Ar/CO2 mixtures are the most commonly used shielding gases in FCAW processes.
arc The area in which electricity jumps from the electrode to the workpiece. Arcs generate heat that melt the base metals and filler metal during welding processes.
arc blow A condition resulting from the interaction of an electric current and the magnetic field the current induces. Arc blow can cause several weld discontinuities, including excessive spatter, incomplete fusion, and porosity.
arc length The distance that the electricity must travel from the tip of the electrode to the weld puddle. Longer arcs require more voltage.
arc stability The process of controlling a welding arc in an even and predictable manner. Arc stability is essential during the welding process.
arc stabilizers Elements and materials included in the core of FCAW electrodes that prevent them from becoming erratic and difficult to control. Arc stabilizers used in FCAW electrodes include potassium and sodium.
argon Ar. An inert gas commonly mixed with carbon dioxide for use as a shielding gas. Argon is much heavier than air, so it effectively shields the weld area, especially when used in the flat position.
backhand technique Moving the electrode along the workpiece when it is pointing opposite the direction of travel. The backhand technique is often used with self-shielded FCAW.
bevel angle The angle formed between the prepared edge of one side of the base metal and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the other side of the base metal. In FCAW, the size of the bevel angle depends on the type of FCAW method.
burn-through A weld defect that occurs when too much heat is applied to the weld zone, causing the base material to fall through the joint as well as excess penetration. Burn-through is also called excessive penetration.
carbon dioxide CO2. An active gas commonly used as shielding for FCAW. Carbon dioxide is inexpensive but yields a violent arc.
carbon dioxide CO2. An active gas that is heavy, colorless, and odorless. Carbon dioxide is commonly used as a shielding gas.
carbon monoxide CO. A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas made of carbon and oxygen. Carbon monoxide is produced when carbon dioxide is heated to high temperatures and dissociates.
carbon steel A common metal that is an alloy of iron and carbon. The amount of carbon in a carbon steel affects its strength, ductility, and malleability.
chemical composition The type, amount, and arrangement of atoms that, combined, compose a whole material or substance. Chemical composition can be altered whenever a change occurs at the atomic level.
chipping The act of cutting or breaking small pieces, or chips, with an edged tool. Chipping is sometimes used to remove slag and spatter from welded workpieces.
chromium A shiny, hard, steel-gray metal that improves corrosion resistance. Chromium is sometimes present in flux materials to improve creep resistance, hardness, and strength in the weld.
circuit A completely enclosed path that contains an electrical current. In welding, a circuit is also known as a welding circuit.
CO2 Carbon dioxide. An active gas commonly used as shielding for FCAW. CO2 is inexpensive but yields a violent arc.
conductive Able to act as a path for the movement of electricity. Conductive materials include many different types of metals.
constant voltage CV. An amount of electricity from a welding power source that varies only slightly. With constant voltage, the current, or amperage, changes significantly.
consumable electrode An electrode that conducts electricity to the arc but also melts into the weld as a filler metal. Some consumable electrodes may also provide shielding that protects the arc and weld puddle.
contact tip The device located inside the welding gun that conducts electricity to the electrode and directs the wire electrode into the weld joint. Contact tips are usually made of copper.
contact tip to work distance CTWD. The distance from the contact tip to the workpiece surface. As contact tip to work distance increases, the welding current decreases.
convex Curving outward like the exterior surface of a circle or sphere. An overly convex weld is often considered a discontinuity or defect as determined by welding code.
convex Curving outward like the exterior surface of a circle or sphere. In FCAW, overly convex weld beads can be produced as a result of using too much amperage.
core The inner part of an electrode that is surrounded by an outer sheath. The core of FCAW electrodes contains flux materials.
corrosion A process by which a metal gradually degrades or wears away. Corrosion typically occurs when metal is exposed to atmosphere, moisture, or other substances.
corrosion resistance The ability of a material to resist deterioration and chemical breakdown due to surface exposure in a particular environment. Corrosion resistance is an important physical property of finished welds.
crater A depression that forms in the weld bead. A crater can cause cracking if it is not properly filled.
crater cracks A gap or break in the surface of a weld that occurs because welding was improperly terminated. Crater cracks are also called star cracks.
creep resistance The ability of a metal to withstand a constant force or weight at elevated temperatures without deforming. Creep resistance is also called creep strength.
CTWD Contact tip to work distance. The distance from the contact tip to the workpiece surface. As contact tip to work distance increases, the welding current decreases.
current The rate and amount of electrical flow, which is measured in amperage. A continuous current is required in arc welding in order to maintain the electric arc.
CV Constant voltage. An amount of electricity from a welding power source that varies only slightly. With constant voltage, the current, or amperage, changes significantly.
decomposes To break down or separate into smaller parts. When used in FCAW-G, carbon dioxide decomposes and reacts with the flux materials at the core of an FCAW electrode.
defect An irregularity in a weld that exceeds the part design tolerances. A defect is a rejectable discontinuity, which is determined by welding code.
denitrifiers A material that removes nitrogen from the molten weld puddle and arc. Denitrifiers prevent nitrogen from ruining a weld bead.
deoxidizers A material that removes oxygen from the molten weld puddle and arc. Deoxidizers prevent oxygen from ruining a weld bead.
deposition rates The rate at which an electrode melts into the molten weld puddle to form a weld. The deposition rate can be measured in pounds per hour or in grams per minute.
direct current DC. Current that flows continuously in one direction. Direct current is required in several common arc welding processes.
direct current electrode negative DCEN (DC-). The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the negative pole and the workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc. Direct current electrode negative is sometimes called straight polarity.
direct current electrode positive DCEP (DC+). The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the positive pole and the workpiece is the negative pole of the welding arc. Direct current electrode positive is sometimes called reverse polarity.
dirty steels Steel workpieces that have surface contaminants. Dirty steel includes workpieces with rusted surfaces.
discontinuities An irregularity in the specified and expected composition of a weld. A discontinuity is not always a defect.
dissociation A process that separates a chemical combination into smaller, separate parts. An example of dissociation includes carbon dioxide separating into carbon monoxide and oxygen.
drag angle A travel angle that points the electrode opposite the direction of travel. Drag angles are used with the backhand technique.
drag angle A travel angle that points the electrode opposite the direction of welding. Drag angles are used with the backhand technique.
electrical stickout The distance from the end of the contact tip to the end of the electrode. Electrical stickout is also called electrode extension.
electrode axis An imaginary line that runs through the center of the length of an electrode. The electrode axis is perpendicular to and at the geometric center of its cross section.
electrode diameter A measurement of the thickness of the electrode. Electrode diameter can affect productivity.
electrode extension The distance from the end of the contact tip to the end of the electrode. Electrode extension is also called electrical stickout.
electrode orientation The position in which a welder manipulates the electrode. Electrode orientation refers to both the work angle and the travel angle.
environment The factors that make up the surroundings in a given place. An environment consists of various components, including noise, moisture, temperature, and air quality.
excessive penetration A weld defect that occurs when too much heat is applied to the weld zone, causing an excess in penetration and the base material to fall through the joint. Excessive penetration is also called burn-through.
FCAW Flux-cored arc welding. An arc welding process that uses a continuously fed consumable electrode with a flux core wrapped within an outer metal sheath. FCAW can be a semi-automatic or automatic process.
FCAW-G Gas-shielded flux-cored arc welding. An FCAW process that uses fluxing agents and an external shielding gas to shield the weld. FCAW-G provides the weld area with double shielding protection.
FCAW-S Self-shielded flux-cored arc welding. An FCAW process that uses only the fluxing agents contained in the electrode to shield the weld. FCAW-S processes do not need external shielding gas.
ferrous metals A metal that contains iron. Ferrous metals are the most common type of welded metal.
field welding Performing a weld on a job site and not in a welding facility. Field welding typically occurs outdoors.
fillet weld A type of weld that is triangular in shape and joins two surfaces at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint. Fillet welds are the most common types of welds.
flat position A welding position used to weld from the upper side of the joint. Some FCAW electrodes are designated for only the flat or horizontal weld positions.
flow rate The rate at which shielding gas moves from its cylinder, through the gas delivery system, and to the arc and weld puddle. Flow rate is usually measured in standard cubic feet per hour (SCFH) or in liters per minute (l/min).
flux Non-metallic materials used to protect the weld puddle and solid metal from atmospheric contamination. In FCAW, flux material is contained in the core of the electrode.
flux-cored arc welding FCAW. An arc welding process that uses a continuously fed consumable electrode with a flux core wrapped within an outer metal sheath. FCAW can be a semi-automatic or automatic process.
forehand technique Moving the electrode along the workpiece when it is pointing in the direction of travel. The forehand technique is sometimes utilizes during out-of-position FCAW processes.
gas mark A gas-shielded FCAW weld discontinuity that occurs when a gas bubble from the arc becomes trapped in the weld puddle and marks the weld bead after the slag solidifies. Gas marks are also called worm tracking.
gas marks A gas-shielded FCAW weld discontinuity that occurs when a gas bubble from the arc becomes trapped in the weld puddle and marks the weld bead after the slag solidifies. Gas marks are also called worm tracking.
gas mixture A combination of gases used for shielding a weld. The most common gas mixture used in FCAW is an argon-carbon dioxide (Ar/CO2) mixture.
gas-shielded FCAW FCAW-G. An FCAW process that uses fluxing agents and an external shielding gas to shield the weld. FCAW-G provides the weld area with double shielding protection.
gauge A standard of measure used to determine a specific thickness of sheet metal. The larger the gauge number is, the thinner the metal is.
globular arc transfer A type of metal transfer in which the electrode produces a large ball of metal when it touches the workpiece. Globular arc transfer deposits large amounts of metal into the weld puddle but can produce a lot of spatter due to its erratic nature.
grinding The use of an abrasive to wear away at the surface of a workpiece and change its shape. Grinding may be used as a means of removing spatter and finishing a weld.
groove angle The angle of the groove between two workpieces that are welded together. In FCAW, the groove angle depends on the type of FCAW method used.
groove weld A type of weld that consists of an opening between two part surfaces, which provides space to contain weld metal. Groove welds are used for many different joints as determined according to AWS welding code and/or welding procedure specifications.
gun angle The angle, either acute or right, that is between the electrode axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis. The gun angle, which is sometimes called the work angle, positions the weld bead on the joint and determines the direction in which the heat is applied.
hardness The ability of a material to resist scratching, abrasion, indentation, or cutting. Hardness is one of the mechanical properties of a given material.
heat input HI. The amount of thermal energy provided to the workpiece during the welding process. Heat input is measured in kilojoules per inch (kJ/in.) or kilojoules per millimeter (kJ/mm).
horizontal position A common welding position used for fillet and groove welds when the workpiece is parallel to the work surface. Some FCAW electrodes are designated for only the flat or horizontal weld positions.
hot cracking The formation of fractures that develop in a weld after its solidification is complete. Hot cracking is also called solidification cracking.
incomplete fusion The lack of complete integration between the weld metal and adjoining weld beads. Incomplete fusion can be caused by faulty operator technique, improper preparation of the base metal, insufficient welding heat, lack of access to the adjoining beads, and improper joint design.
incomplete penetration A discontinuity characterized by an unpenetrated and unfused area in a joint. Incomplete penetration occurs when weld metal does not extend through the thickness of the joint.
inert gas A type of gas that is inactive and has a limited ability to form chemical reactions. Inert gases, such as argon and helium, are often used as shielding gases.
insulated guide A small, non-conductive piece of material, such as plastic or fiberglass, that is placed inside a welding gun to prevent the gun from becoming electrically charged. Insulated guides also allow for longer electrical stickout and help to reduce weld defects such as porosity.
interpass temperature The temperature of the base metal between the first and last welding pass. The interpass temperature must never fall below the preheat temperature.
inverse relationship An association in which the value of one variable increases while the value of the other variable decreases. An inverse relationship is also called a negative relationship.
ions A charged atom or molecule. An ion can be either positive or negative depending on whether it has a shortage or surplus of electrons.
ipm Inches per minute. In the English system, the number of linear inches that a component travels in one minute. In welding, inches per minute is used to measure many variables, including travel speed and wire feed speed.
joint design The specification of a particular joint type and its required dimensions. Joint design depends on the welding process and the base metal's thickness.
joint preparation The creation of the appropriate opening for a weld before welding takes place. Joint preparation covers a variety of processes, including cutting, cleaning, and preheating.
kilojoules per inch kJ/in. The amount of energy that travels through a component for the length of one linear inch. In welding, kilojoules per inch is often used to measure heat input.
kilojoules per millimeter kJ/mm. The amount of energy that travels through a component for the length of one linear millimeter. In welding, kilojoules per millimeter is often used to measure heat input.
lead A heavy, gray metal that is very soft and ductile, a poor conductor of electricity, and can be added to steel to improve machinability. Lead in base metal can cause hot cracking in FCAW welds.
leg The distance from the root to the toe of the fillet weld. Leg length determine the size of a fillet weld.
leg The distance from the root to the toe of the fillet weld. Leg length determines the size of a fillet weld.
low-alloy steel A steel that contains small amounts of intentionally added materials that change the properties of the metal. Most low-alloy steels include common alloying elements, such as manganese, molybdenum, and nickel.
magnetic fields A force of attraction that surrounds magnets and current-carrying conductors. In welding, unbalanced magnetic fields near the arc can cause arc blow.
mechanical properties A characteristic that describes how a material reacts when subjected to a force that attempts to stretch, compress, bend, dent, scratch or break it. Mechanical properties include strength, toughness, ductility, and hardness.
melt-off rate A measurement of the amount of filler metal deposited into a weld joint. The melt-off rate is measured in pounds per hour or grams per minute.
negative An electrical charge with a surplus of electrons. A negative charge is symbolized by a minus (-) sign.
nickel A hard, malleable, silvery white metal often present in flux materials. Nickel increases a weld's strength and corrosion resistance.
oscillating To move back and forth from side-to-side. Oscillating an electrode from side-to-side along a joint will create a weave bead.
out-of-position welding All welding positions outside of flat and horizontal positions. Out-of-position welding includes vertical and overhead positions.
output The type of power that the power source produces. Forms of output include direct current, alternating current, constant current, and constant voltage.
oxygen O₂. A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that naturally exists in the atmosphere. In welding, too much oxygen causes cracking and rusting in the metals.
penetration The depth to which the arc heat can melt the joint below the surface of the base metal. Penetration is directly affected by the amount of amperage.
perpendicular An intersection of two lines or objects at right angles to one another. Perpendicular lines create angles measuring exactly 90 degrees.
physical properties A characteristic of a material that describes the way it responds to forces other than mechanical ones. Physical properties include a metal's magnetic, thermal, and electrical attributes.
plane An imaginary surface that is perfectly flat or level. A plane is represented by a closed four-sided figure.
polarity Having two oppositely charged poles, one positive and one negative. Polarity determines the direction in which current tends to flow.
porosity A welding discontinuity which results from trapped gases in a material and is characterized by the appearance of tiny voids or bubbles on a weld bead. Excessive porosity can weaken a weld.
porosity A welding discontinuity, which results from trapped gases in a material, that is characterized by the appearance of tiny voids or bubbles on a weld bead. Excessive porosity can weaken a weld.
positive An electrical charge with a shortage of electrons. A positive charge is symbolized by a plus (+) sign.
power source A device that provides electricity to the arc welding process. Arc welding power sources can be plugged into a wall outlet, or they can generate electricity through the use of a mechanical device like a motor and generator.
preheat temperature A specific temperature to which the base material is heated prior to welding. Preheat temperature is often specified in welding codes.
preheating The application of heat to a base metal immediately before welding. Preheating provides several benefits to the welding process, such as reducing hardness, improving ductility, and lessening the chance of hydrogen cracks.
push angle A travel angle that points the electrode in the direction of travel. Push angles are used with the forehand technique.
reacts To undergo change when exposed to another substance. In welding, active gases will react when exposed to certain elements.
resistance The force that opposes the flow of electrical current. Resistance also affects voltage.
right angle An angle that measures exactly 90 degrees. Right angles are formed by two lines that are perpendicular to one another.
root opening The separation at the joint root between the base metals, and where fusion should occur between the weld metal and adjoining weld beads. The size of the root opening determines how much weld metal is needed to obtain fusion at the root.
ropey A weld bead that is more convex than allowed by welding code. Ropey weld beads are caused by excessive reinforcement and have a rope-like appearance.
self-shielded FCAW FCAW-S. An FCAW process that uses only the fluxing agents contained in the electrode to shield the weld. FCAW-S processes do not need external shielding gas.
sheath A case or covering that usually encloses a tubular structure. In FCAW electrodes, a metal sheath surrounds a flux core.
shield To protect the weld puddle and arc from reacting negatively with the atmosphere. A shield can be provided by either a gas or a type of flux.
shielding gas An inert or slightly active gas that protects the weld puddle and arc from reacting negatively with the atmosphere. Shielding gases are used in some arc welding processes.
slag Cooled flux that forms on top of the weld bead. Slag protects cooling metal and is then chipped off.
slag inclusion A welding discontinuity resulting from the combined dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities. Slag inclusion can affect the strength and integrity of a weld in its final application.
slag inclusions A welding discontinuity resulting from slag becoming trapped in weld metal. Slag inclusion can affect the strength and integrity of a weld in its final application.
solidification cracking The formation of fractures that develop in a weld after its solidification is complete. Solidification cracking is also called hot cracking.
spatter Liquid metal droplets expelled during the welding process. Spatter can leave undesirable dots of metal on a workpiece surface.
stainless steels A type of steel that contains a minimum of 10.5% chromium. Stainless steel is very hard and exhibits excellent corrosion resistance.
stringer bead A type of weld bead formed by moving the electrode straight along the joint. A quality stringer bead has good wash-in at the toes of the weld.
structural fabrication The construction of large structures such as buildings and bridges. Structural fabrication projects are heavily regulated, subject to a variety of tests, and required to meet very strict codes and standards.
sulfur A non-metallic element occurring naturally in large quantities, which is generally melted out or reduced by purification in the steel-making process. Sulfur in base metals can cause hot cracking in FCAW welds.
tensile strength A material's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. Tensile strength is usually expressed in pounds per square inch or in Newtons per square meter.
thermal energy Energy resulting from the motion of particles. Thermal energy is a form of energy that is transferred as heat.
travel angle The acute angle between the electrode axis and a line vertically perpendicular to the weld axis. The travel angle points the electrode either in toward or away from the direction of welding.
travel speed TS. The rate at which the welder moves the electrode along the joint to make the weld. Travel speed determines the size of the weld bead and is measured in inches per minute (in./min or ipm) or millimeters per minute (mm/min).
trigger A lever on the welding gun that controls an electrical switch. When a welder holds the gun above the workpiece and pulls the trigger, the welding process begins.
undercut A groove melted into the base metal at the weld toe or root that is left unfilled by weld metal. Undercut, which is often considered a defect, concentrates stress on the weld and weakens it.
undercut A groove melted into the base metal at the weld toe or weld root that is left unfilled by weld metal. An undercut concentrates stresses on the weld and is considered a defect if it exceeds the part's tolerances.
venturi effect An effect that occurs when air is sucked into the flow of shielding gas and the welding arc. The venturi effect is caused by an excessively high gas flow that hits and bounces off of a workpiece at a high velocity, which causes the gas to start moving in a swirling, whirlpool-like motion.
visible stickout The distance between the end of the insulated guide and the end of the electrode. Visible stickout is the portion of the electrode that the welder can see.
voltage The electrical force or pressure that causes current to flow in a circuit. Voltage is measured in volts.
voltage drop The loss of voltage as an electric current moves through an electrical circuit. In FCAW, voltage drop can be reduced by increasing the electrode extension.
wash-in The section of deposited weld metal that aligns evenly with the weld toe. A good wash-in is smooth and even along the joint and does not undercut the base metal.
weave bead A weld bead formed by moving the electrode back and forth along the joint in a weaving motion. With a weave bead, the welder must first move the electrode in a triangular motion along the joint during the initial weld pass.
weld axis An imaginary line through the center and along the length of a weld. The weld axis is located at the geometric center of its cross section and is horizontal with the workpiece's surface.
weld distortion A disfigurement or warping in the weld bead that signals improper welding preparation or procedure. Weld distortion is better controlled when using a colder welding arc and weld bead.
weld pass One progression of welding along a joint. The result of a weld pass is a weld bead.
weld pool The small area of molten metal that forms during welding, and which, when cooled, forms the permanent joint. Weld pools are also sometimes called weld puddles.
weld toes The point at which the weld face and the base metal meet. Weld toes can experience cracking and undercut.
welding code A collection of laws or standards that outline practices for a particular welding application. Welding codes ensure safe welding practices and high-quality welded products.
welding position The position in which the welder performs a weld. The different welding positions include overhead-, vertical-, flat-, and horizontal-position welding.
Welding Procedure Specification WPS. A written document that contains all the necessary and specific information regarding the application of a welding project. Welding Procedure Specifications must be approved and tested before they can be used.
wire feed speed WFS. The rate at which the wire electrode is fed through the welding gun. Wire feed speed determines amperage and the amount of heat in the arc in FCAW.
work angle The angle, either acute or right, that is between the electrode axis and the horizontal plane of the workpiece surface. The work angle, which is sometimes called the gun angle, positions the weld bead on the joint and determines the direction in which the heat is applied.
work clamp The component that, along with the electrode, comes in direct contact with the workpiece during welding. The work clamp is connected to the power source by the work cable and provides ground for the FCAW circuit.
worm tracking A gas-shielded FCAW weld discontinuity that occurs when a gas bubble from the arc becomes trapped in the weld puddle and marks the weld bead after the slag solidifies. Worm tracking is also called gas marking.
yield strength The ability of a metal to tolerate gradual progressive force without permanent deformation. The yield strength of a weld should match the yield strength of its base metal.