Mechanical Systems Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Power Transmission Components 120
Description:This class discusses the process of mechanical power transmission and describes the components used to transmit mechanical energy.
Prerequisites: none
Difficulty:Beginner
Number of Lessons:17
Language:English, Spanish
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is Power Transmission?
  • Prime Movers
  • Types of Prime Movers
  • Open Gearing and Gearboxes
  • Types of Gears: Intersecting Shafts
  • Types of Gears: Nonintersecting Shafts
  • Belt Drive Systems
  • Types of Belts
  • Chain Drive Systems
  • Types of Chains
  • Clutches
  • Couplings
  • Bearings
  • Transmissions
  • Linear Motion
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Identify systems used to transmit power.
  • Describe the function of a prime mover.
  • Describe common industrial prime movers.
  • Describe the characteristics of gears.
  • Identify types of gears used with nonintersecting shafts.
  • Identify types of gears used with intersecting shafts.
  • Describe the characteristics of belt drive systems.
  • Identify common types of belts used to transmit motion in belt drive systems.
  • Describe the characteristics of chain drive systems.
  • Identify common types of chains used to transmit motion in chain drive systems.
  • Describe how a clutch is used to transmit motion.
  • Identify types of couplings.
  • Identify types of bearings.
  • Describe the characteristics of transmissions.
  • Describe the uses of a linear motion system.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
actuator A component that directly helps convert hydraulic or pneumatic energy into mechanical energy.
alignment The accurate positioning of parts in a mechanical system in relation to one another. Two shafts in alignment are parallel to one another or form a straight line.
American National Standards Institute ANSI. A private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates voluntary standards and systems.
angular gear train A gear train composed of gears on intersecting shafts.
automatic transmission A complex transmission that does not require the operator to shift gears in order to change the speed and torque of mechanical energy.
axis An imaginary straight line that passes through the center of an object. A gear may have an opening at its axis in which a shaft can be inserted.
ball bearing A rolling-element bearing containing metal balls placed between two parts. A ball bearing allows machine parts to move with little friction.
bearing A friction-reducing device that allows one moving part to glide past another moving part.
belt A loop of flexible material used in a belt drive system to transmit motion. Belts are made of various materials and come in different types, such as flat belts, round belts, and V-belts.
belt drive system A system consisting of a belt and at least two fixed pulleys that is used to transmit motion.
bevel gear A type of gear with cone-shaped teeth cut at an angle. Bevel gears are often used in angular gear trains.
block-and-pin U-joint The most common type of U-joint. A block-and-pin U-joint has two open-ended shafts that are connected to a center block with pins.
brake A type of friction clutch that is used to slow or stop the transfer of energy from a shaft to a load, thereby slowing or stopping the motion of a load.
chain A device made of individual links that mesh with the teeth of a sprocket. Chains are used in chain drive systems to transmit motion.
chain drive system A system consisting of a chain and sprockets that is used to transmit motion.
clutch A mechanical device used to gradually stop or start the transmission of power, speed, or torque from a prime mover to a load.
clutching The process of transferring torque from an input shaft to an output shaft.
cogged belt A belt that has teeth molded directly into its surface, which mesh with corresponding teeth in pulleys. A cogged belt is designed to avoid slipping and is also known as a timing belt.
connecting link A link of chain used to connect the chain ends and form a loop. A connecting link can be fastened with a cotter pin.
contamination The presence of damaging foreign materials such as dirt or shop debris in a lubricant.
corrosion The gradual chemical attack on a material by atmosphere, moisture, or other agents.
coupling A device that connects two shafts in a mechanical system in order to transfer motion.
double-pitch roller chain A roller chain with links spaced twice as far apart as a standard roller chain. Double-pitch roller chains are less expensive but cannot operate as quietly or as fast as a standard chain.
drive gear The gear that receives energy from a power source, such as an electric motor. Drive gears transmit power to an intersecting driven gear to perform work.
driven gear The gear that receives motion from the drive gear on a machine.
driven pulley The fixed pulley in a belt drive system that receives energy from the driver pulley via a belt.
driven sprocket The sprocket in a chain drive system that receives energy from the driver sprocket via a chain.
driver pulley The fixed pulley in a belt drive system that receives energy from the power source and transfers it to the driven pulley.
driver sprocket The sprocket in a chain drive system that receives power from the power source and transfers it to the driven sprocket through the chain.
electric motor A machine that converts electricity into mechanical energy or motion. An electric motor is a type of prime mover for a mechanical system.
energy The ability to perform work.
fixed pulley A device consisting of a wheel rigidly fixed to a shaft that is used in a belt drive system to transmit energy.
flat belt A belt consisting of a flat loop of material used to transmit motion between two pulleys. Flat belts can be made of various materials, such as rubber, canvas, plastic, or flexible metals.
flexible coupling A type of coupling that can connect aligned shafts or flex to accommodate shafts that are slightly misaligned.
fossil fuel Any naturally occurring organic fuel formed in the Earth’s crust, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are burned to release stored energy.
friction A force that resists motion between two objects that are in contact with each other.
friction clutch The most common type of clutch used in mechanical systems. A friction clutch contains two discs, each connected to its own shaft, that can be forced together to transfer energy.
gear A round or cylindrical mechanical component with teeth, used to transmit power. Gears are designed to mesh with one another and can alter the speed, torque, or direction of mechanical energy.
gear shift A mechanism that allows the operator of a manual transmission to move the gears into various positions, changing the speed and torque of mechanical energy.
gear train A set of gears arranged to transfer mechanical energy from one part of a mechanical system to another.
gearbox An enclosed system of assembled gears that transmits mechanical energy from a prime mover to an output device. A gearbox can also change the speed, direction, or torque of mechanical energy.
generator A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
grease A semi-solid substance composed of oil and a chemical soap or other additive, commonly used as an industrial lubricant.
heat engine A device that converts heat energy into mechanical or electrical energy. A heat engine is a type of prime mover.
helical gear A type of gear with slanted teeth. Helical gears are quieter than spur gears, but they are more expensive and produce side loads.
herringbone gear A type of gear that has angled teeth in the shape of a letter "V." Herringbone gears resist side loading but are expensive to produce.
horsepower A unit of power used to describe machine strength. Horsepower is abbreviated as hp.
hydraulic pump A mechanical device used to move liquids in a hydraulic system.
inverted-tooth chain A type of chain with teeth on its links that mesh with teeth in the sprockets of a chain drive. An inverted-tooth chain operates quietly and smoothly and is also known as a silent chain.
kinetic energy Energy of an object that has been put in motion.
linear ball bearing A type of rolling-element bearing that is cylindrical in shape and used with linear motion systems.
linear motion Motion that takes place along a straight line. Mechanical energy can take the form of rotary or linear motion.
load The opposition to applied force, such as weight being carried or moved.
lubricant A substance used to reduce friction between two surfaces in relative motion.
lubrication The application of a substance to reduce friction between two surfaces in relative motion. Oil and grease are commonly used for lubrication.
manual transmission A type of transmission that requires an operator to shift gears manually to change the speed and torque of mechanical energy.
mechanical advantage The difference between the applied force and the work accomplished. Mechanical advantage allows machines to perform more work with less effort.
miter gear A type of bevel gear used in pairs with intersecting shafts at 90° angles. Both the drive gear and driven gear in a miter gear pair have the same diameter, same number of teeth, and a mechanical advantage of 1.
oil A slippery fluid commonly used as an industrial lubricant.
open gearing Gears in unassembled form.
perpendicular An intersection of two lines or objects at right angles. Angular gear trains are used to transmit motion between perpendicular shafts.
pitch The measure of distance between chain links. The larger the pitch, the larger the chain will be.
plain bearing A bearing that uses sliding motion to support a load. Plain bearings are the simplest bearing design.
point of use The part of a power transmission system where work is performed.
potential energy Stored energy with the potential to do work. An actuator converts potential energy to kinetic energy.
power transmission The movement of energy from a source to an output device that performs work.
prime mover In a power transmission system, the device that introduces energy into the system and converts the energy into the appropriate form.
profile rail linear guide A smooth surface that supports and guides the rolling element of a linear bearing.
retainer clip A fastener used to secure the parts of a chain link. A retainer clip is also known as a spring clip.
revolutions per minute The number of times a component rotates in a complete circle in one minute. Revolutions per minute (rpm) is a measurement of speed.
rigid coupling A type of coupling used to connect shafts that are in alignment. A rigid coupling is the simplest type of coupling.
roller chain The most common type of chain used in industry. A roller chain can be used at high speeds.
rolling-element bearing A bearing with rolling parts inside that support the motion of a load. A ball bearing is an example of a rolling-element bearing.
rotary motion Spinning or turning motion that takes place around an axis, without a change in linear position. Mechanical energy can take the form of rotary or linear motion.
round belt A belt with a circular tube shape, used to transmit motion between two pulleys. Round belts can operate at high speeds and are often used in serpentine belt systems.
seal A device used with bearings to retain lubricant and prevent contamination.
serpentine belt drive A belt drive system that includes more than two fixed pulleys working in conjunction.
shaft In a mechanical system, a cylindrical bar used to support rotating components or to transmit power or motion by rotation.
side load A force that attempts to shift a component off its axis of rotation. Side loads occur when gears are meshed together at an angle and can lead to increased wear.
silent chain A type of chain with teeth on its links that mesh with teeth in the sprockets of a chain drive. A silent chain operates quietly and smoothly and is also known as an inverted-tooth chain.
sprocket A sprocket is a gear or wheel with metal teeth that meshes with the links of a chain. Sprockets are used in chain drive systems to transmit motion.
spur gear A type of gear that has straight, flat-topped teeth set parallel to the shaft. Spur gears are the most common type of gears used in industry.
timing belt A belt that has teeth molded directly into its surface, which mesh with corresponding teeth in pulleys. A timing belt is designed to avoid slipping and is also known as a cogged belt.
torque A force that produces rotation.
transmission A machine that uses a combination of gears and other mechanical components to change the speed or torque of mechanical energy.
turbine A machine that uses the motion or energy of moving water or wind to produce movement. A turbine generates electricity through mechanical motion.
U-joint A type of joint used to transmit power between shafts that are too far out of alignment to be joined by a flexible coupling. A U-joint is also known as a universal joint.
universal joint A type of joint used to transmit power between shafts that are too far out of alignment to be joined by a flexible coupling. A universal joint is also known as a U-joint.
V-belt A belt with a flat bottom and tapered sides, used to transmit motion between two pulleys. Multiple V-belts are often used together in order to increase carrying power.
work The result of a force applied to an object and the distance through which the force is applied.
worm A cylindrical, screw-shaped shaft that is used with a worm gear to transmit motion.
worm gear A gear with teeth that mesh with the screw-like threads of a worm to transmit motion.
worm gear drive A gear drive consisting of a long, cylindrical device with a spiraling groove that intersects with the teeth of a wheel-like gear. A worm gear drive is used to transmit motion between nonintersecting perpendicular shafts, and the cylindrical "worm" is always the drive gear.