Welding Training

Class Information
Welding Training Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Overview of Weld Types 130
Description:This class describes the various joint and weld types, welding positions, and possible weld defects that can occur on a welded joint. Includes an Interactive Lab.
Number of Lessons:17
Language:English, Spanish, Chinese
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Joint Design
  • Types of Joints
  • Parts of a Weld
  • Types of Welds
  • Fillet Weld Characteristics
  • Groove Weld Characteristics
  • Other Types of Welds
  • Joint Penetration
  • Weld Size
  • Weld Combinations
  • Weld Defects
  • Undercut
  • Joint Requirements
  • Welding Positions
  • Choosing a Joint and Weld Type
  • Summary
Class Objectives
  • Describe the characteristics of the typical joint.
  • Identify the different types of joints.
  • Identify the parts of a typical weld.
  • Identify the most common types of welds.
  • Identify the different parts of a fillet weld.
  • Identify the different types of groove welds.
  • Identify less common types of welds.
  • Describe joint penetration.
  • Describe the variables that affect the size of a weld.
  • Describe the advantages of combining weld types.
  • Identify the different types of weld defects.
  • Describe common factors that cause undercut.
  • List the different joint requirements.
  • Identify the different welding positions.
  • Describe factors to consider when choosing a joint and weld combination.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
arc welding A fusion welding process that uses electricity to generate the heat needed to melt the base metals.
back-gouging The removal of weld metal and base metal from the side opposite of a partially welded joint to facilitate complete joint penetration.
bevel-groove weld A type of groove weld with one edge shaped like the V-groove weld and one edge that is square. This weld requires less preparation and weld metal.
butt joint A type of joint between two metal parts that lie in the same plane. A butt joint is the most common joint type.
chipping The act of cutting or breaking small pieces, or chips, with an edged tool.
complete joint penetration The penetration by the weld metal throughout the full thickness of the base metal in a joint with a groove weld.
concave Curving inward like the inside of a bowl. Many fillet welds have concave faces.
convex Curving outward like the exterior part of a circle. Many fillet welds have convex faces.
corner joint A type of joint between two metal parts located at right angles to one another. Corner joints require large amounts of weld metal.
current The flow of electricity, measured in amperes or amps. Arc welding requires a continous flow of electricity to maintain the arc.
double-groove weld A weld that has two groove welds on both sides of the joint.
edge joint A type of joint in which the surface of the two metal parts to be joined are parallel to one another, and the weld is made at their common edges.
electrode A device that conducts electricity. In welding, the electrode also can act as the filler metal.
fast-fill A type of joint requirement that requires a large amount of weld metal to fill the joint.
fast-follow A type of joint requirement suggesting that molten metal must follow the arc at a rapid speed.
fast-freeze A type of joint requirement that implies that a joint is out of position and requires quick solidification of weld metal.
filler metal A type of metal sometimes added to the joint in fusion welding. Filler metal adds to the strength and mass of the welded joint.
fillet weld A type of weld that is triangular in shape and joins two surfaces at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint. Fillet welds are the most common types of welds.
flat-position welding The welding position used to weld from the upper side of the joint. The face of the weld is horizontal.
gouging The act of scooping out larger pieces of metal with a tool.
grinding The use of an abrasive to wear away at the surface of a workpiece and change its shape.
groove weld A type of weld that consists of an opening between two part surfaces, which provides space to contain weld metal. Groove welds are used on all joints except lap joints.
horizontal-position welding A common welding position used for fillet and groove welds. For fillet welds, welding is performed on the upper side of a horizontal surface and against a vertical surface. For groove welds, the weld axis lies in a horizontal plane, and the weld face lies in a vertical plane.
inadequate joint penetration Joint penetration that is less than specified in the joint design. This may result from insufficient heat or poor control of the arc.
incomplete fusion A weld discontinuity in which fusion did not properly occur between weld metal and base metal or adjoining weld beads.
J-groove weld A type of groove weld with an opening in the shape of the letter "J." The edge of one metal part is concave, and the other is square.
joint The meeting point of the two materials that are joined together. Welding creates a permanent joint.
joint penetration The minimum depth that a groove weld extends into the face of a joint.
joint preparation The creation of the appropriate opening for a groove weld before welding takes place. This may include grinding or machining the edges to create the appropriate space.
lap joint A type of joint between two overlapping metal parts in parallel planes.
leg The distance from the root to the toe of the fillet weld. The size of the fillet weld is determined by the length of its legs.
machining The process of removing metal by producing chips through the use of cutting tools.
overhead-position welding The welding position in which welding is performed from the underside of the joint. Overhead-position welding is the most difficult welding position.
partial joint penetration The penetration by the weld metal that is intentionally less than complete.
penetration A type of joint requirement that determines how deep the weld metal extends into the joint.
plane A flat surface that extends infinitely in any direction in three dimensions.
plug weld A type of weld made by joining one metal part with a circular hole to another metal part positioned directly beneath it.
porosity Cavity type discontinuities or bubbles formed by gas entrapment during solidification of the weld metal.
resistance welding A group of welding processes that joins parts by the heat obtained from the resistance to the flow of electric current. Pressure is applied to weld the parts together.
right triangle A triangle with a 90° angle.
root opening The separation at the joint root between the base metals. The size of the root opening determines how much weld metal is needed to obtain fusion at the root.
seam weld A type of continuous weld made between or upon overlapping metal parts.
single-groove weld A weld that has one groove weld on one side of the joint.
slag inclusion Non-metallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal.
slot weld A type of weld made by joining one metal part with an elongated hole to another metal part positioned directly beneath it.
spot weld A type of weld made between or upon overlapping metal parts. Multiple spot welds are generally required to join parts.
square-groove weld A type of groove weld with a slight separation at the edges of the base metal parts. This is the most economical groove weld to prepare.
throat The shortest distance between the weld root and the weld face. The throat determines a fillet weld's size and strength.
T-joint A type of joint produced when two metal parts are perpendicular to each other, forming the shape of the letter "T."
U-groove weld A type of groove weld with an opening in the shape of the letter "U." The edges of a U-groove weld are concave.
undercut A groove melted into the base material, usually along the toes of the weld, that produces a weak spot in the weld.
underfill A depression on the weld face or root surface that extends below the adjacent surface of the base metal. Underfill is the failure of the welder to properly fill the joint with metal.
vertical-position welding The welding position in which welding is done on a vertical surface. Vertical-position welding is more difficult than flat- or horizontal-position welding.
V-groove weld A type of groove weld with an opening in the shape of the letter "V." V-groove welds require more joint preparation but less weld metal.
weld A mix of metals that joins at least two separate parts. Welds can be produced by applying heat or pressure, or both heat and pressure, and they may or may not use an additional filler metal.
weld axis An imaginary line through the length of the weld perpendicular to its cross section.
weld backing A strip of metal located on the side opposite of the weld that provides a surface for depositing the first layer of metal to prevent molten metal from escaping through the joint. Weld backing is used for complete penetration welds.
weld bead The end product of a joint that has been welded.
weld face The exposed surface of a weld on the side from which welding occurs.
weld metal The portion of a weld that has been melted during welding.
weld root The point at which the back of the weld intersects the base metal surfaces.
weld toe A point at which the weld face and the base metal meet.
welder Either the person who performs a weld or the power source that provides the electricity needed to perform an arc weld. Printed materials may use both meanings of the term.
welding A joining process that uses heat, pressure, and/or chemicals to fuse two materials together permanently.