Manual Machining Training


Class Information
Manual Machining Training Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Basics of the Engine Lathe 115
Description:This class describes the basic parts of the engine lathe as well as the cutting tools and workholding devices used on a typical lathe.
Prerequisites: none
Difficulty:Beginner
Number of Lessons:17
Language:English, Spanish, Chinese
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is the Lathe?
  • Types of Lathes
  • Parts of the Engine Lathe
  • Lathe Size
  • The Headstock
  • The Spindle
  • The Lathe Bed
  • The Carriage
  • The Tailstock
  • Toolholders
  • Cutting Tools
  • Workholding Devices
  • Outer-Diameter Cutting Operations
  • Inner-Diameter Cutting Operations
  • Cutting Variables
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe the lathe.
  • Identify the different types of lathes.
  • Identify the parts of the engine lathe.
  • Describe the dimensions that determine the size of the lathe.
  • Describe the role of the headstock.
  • Describe the role of the spindle.
  • Describe the role of the lathe bed.
  • Describe the role of the carriage.
  • Describe the role of the tailstock.
  • Describe common types of toolholders.
  • Describe common types of cutting tools.
  • Describe common types of workholding devices.
  • List common types of OD cutting operations.
  • List common types of ID cutting operations.
  • Describe the cutting variables for the lathe.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
4-position/station toolholder A type of toolholder that allows the mounting of four different tools that can be selected as required.
apron A component on the carriage that contains the gears and shafts that control carriage movement.
bed The base of the lathe that supports the headstock, tailstock, and the ways.
belt-driven lathes Lathes that use either one or more V-shaped belts to drive the spindle.
bore The process of using a single-point tool to enlarge a preexisting hole.
boring The process of using a single-point tool to enlarge a preexisting hole.
brazed-tipped cutting tools Cutting tools made of inexpensive material with a tip made of more expensive material brazed onto the cutting end.
carbide A common cutting tool material used to make both indexable inserts and solid cutting tools. Carbide is very hard and difficult to machine by traditional methods.
carriage The section of the lathe that slides back and forth along the ways and supports the cross-slide and cutting tool.
center A device located in the tailstock of a lathe or turning center that supports the opposite end of a cylindrical workpiece.
chamfer A beveled edge, usually 45° often cut into a workpiece to make subsequent turning easier.
chip An unwanted piece of metal that is removed from a workpiece. Chips are formed when a tool cuts or grinds metal.
chips Unwanted pieces of metal that are removed from a workpiece. Chips are formed when a tool cuts or grinds metal.
chuck A device that holds a workpiece in place as it rotates. The chuck commonly has three or four jaws that can be adjusted to fit various sizes.
collet A slitted device that holds a workpiece in place as it rotates. A collet has a hole through which the workpiece passes, and it is designed to hold specific dimensions.
compound rest The part of the lathe on the carriage that allows for angular adjustment of the cutting tool.
computer numerical control A type of programmable automation, directed by mathematical data, which uses microcomputers to carry out various machining operations.
cross-slide The device supported by the carriage that positions the turret toward and away from the workpiece.
cubic boron nitride A type of cutting tool material offering a hardness that is second only to diamond. CBN tools are very effective at machining most steels and cast irons, but they are also very expensive.
cutting inserts Replaceable cutting tools with a geometric shape that has multiple cutting surfaces. Only one cutting edge of an insert is used at any given time.
cutting off Also called parting, a shearing operation that separates a finished part from the bar stock.
cutting tool A device made of hard, tough material that is used to remove metal by creating chips.
cutting tools Devices made of hard, tough material that are used to remove metal by creating chips.
depth of cut The distance that the cutting tool is plunged into the workpiece. Depth of cut is typically measured in millimeters or inches.
diameter The distance from one edge of the circle to the opposite edge that passes through the center.
drill A tool with multiple cutting edges used to make round holes in workpieces.
drilling A holemaking process in which a rotating cutter (the drill) makes a round hole into the workpiece to a certain depth.
engine lathe The original and most basic type of lathe.
face A turing operation that moves a cutting tool at a right angle to the centerline axis of the workpiece, creating a flat end in the part.
faceplate A flat, round workholding device often used to mount flat-bottom workpieces. A faceplate is the most basic means of mounting a workpiece on the spindle.
facing An operation performed on a lathe that feeds a single-point tool into the end of a cylindrical workpiece to create a flat surface.
fastener A device that holds two or more objects together. A fastener can be a button or a zipper as well as a bolt or a screw.
feed The rate that the cutting tool travels along the surface of the workpiece.
gear-driven lathes Lathes that are driven by a series of belts that connect the motor to the power input.
graduated rule A straightedge with calibrated lines used to measure distances with up to 1/64 inch accuracy.
headstock The end of a lathe that holds the spindle and the drive that rotates the workpiece.
high-speed tool steels A group of tool steels used to machine metals at high cutting speeds. High-speed tool steel stays hard at high temperatures and resists abrasion.
ID grooving An operation performed on the lathe that creates a circular channel or passageway around the interior of a workpiece.
ID threading The process used to machine a long, spiraling ridge along the inner surface of a workpiece.
inch per revolution A measurement that indicates the amount of inches that the cutting tool moves along the rotating workpiece.
indexes Rotates into position. On a turret lathe, the required cutting tool indexes into position when required.
inner-diameter operations Cutting operations performed on the inner surface of a workpiece.
jaws Holding devices on the chuck that clamp down on the workpiece.
lathe A machine tool used to create cylindrical parts. A lathe holds a cylindrical workpiece on one or both ends while a cutting tool is gradually passed along the surface of the rotating part.
lathe centers The centerline axis (z-axis) distance between the spindle center and tailstock center. The maximum length for work mounted on the lathe.
lathe dog A workholding device that clamps around a workpiece and transfers rotary motion from the spindle to the work, allowing work to be held between centers.
leadscrew The long threaded device that controls the precise movement of the carriage on a lathe.
Morse taper A hole in the sleeve of the tailstock that narrows to a point and holds tools or a center. A Morse taper allows for easy locking and removal.
OD grooving An operation performed on the lathe that creates a circular channel or passageway around the exterior of a workpiece.
OD threading The process used to machine a long, spiraling ridge down the outer surface of a workpiece.
outer-diameter operations Cutting operations performed on the outer surface of a workpiece.
parting Also called cutting off, a shearing operation that separates a finished part from the bar stock.
quick-change gearbox A set of controls mounted to the front of the lathe bed that engages the leadscrew to drive the carriage.
quick-change tooling A set of toolholders that consists of several tool blocks or bars that help to speed up the production of parts.
ream The process of removing small amounts of material from the inner diameter of a hole with a multi-edged cutting tool.
reaming The process of using a cutting tool with straight cutting edges to enlarge or smooth holes that have been previously drilled.
roller element bearings A component containing one or more rows of rollers used to reduce friction in a machine.
round-cut grooves Outer-diameter grooves on a workpiece that are round-shaped.
saddle A cast iron frame, shaped like the letter H, that rides on the ways and locates and houses the cross-slide and apron.
single-point tools Cutting tools that have a single cutting edge.
speed The rate at which the cutting edge of the tool moves past the workpiece surface at the point of contact.
spindle The device located in the headstock that rotates the workpiece.
spindle bore diameter The diameter of the hole through the length of the spindle. The larger the spindle bore diameter, the larger the workpiece the lathe can machine.
square-cut grooves Outer-diameter grooves on a workpiece that are square-shaped.
surface feet per minute A measurement of speed describing the distance that the tool tip travels in one minute. It is used for operations requiring an adjustment of spindle speed as the tool moves toward or away from the centerline. Surface feet per minute is abbreviated as sfpm, sfm, or fpm.
swing The maximum diameter of a workpiece that can be rotated on the lathe.
tailstock A component located opposite the headstock that supports the end of longer workpieces.
tailstock indexer A type of toolholder mounted in the tailstock that holds up to six different cutting tools.
tailstock sleeve Tubing that fits over the tailstock. The tailstock sleeve moves towards and away from the headstock.
tapered Uniform change in the diameter of a round workpiece along the centerline axis. Tapered parts make tool holding and tool changing easier for the operator.
tapping The process of cutting internal threads in a workpiece with a multi-point tool.
threads Helical ridges cut into the inner or outer diameter of a round workpiece, allowing the workpiece to be used as a fastener.
tool geometry The collective angles formed by the dimensions of a cutting tool that make a tool unique.
toolholder A tool used to rigidly hold a cutting insert in place during machining. Toolholders are classified so that they can be paired with the correct style of insert.
toolholders Devices used to rigidly hold cutting inserts in place during machining. Toolholders are classified so that they can be paired with the correct style of insert.
toolpost A component that sits on the compound rest and contains a slot for positioning the toolholder and cutting tool.
turning An operation performed on a lathe that feeds a cutting tool along the length of a cylindrical part to reduce its diameter.
turning centers Lathes that are controlled by a computer running programs driven by numerical data. Sophisticated turning centers can also perform a variety of drilling and milling operations.
turret The component of a lathe that holds a number of cutting tools. The turret rotates to place tools in the cutting position.
turret lathe A lathe with a mounted device that holds multiple cutting tools. The turret rotates to position a specific cutting tool in place.
universal jaws A set of synchronized jaws that open and close together when they are tightened or loosened.
V-cut grooves Outer-diameter grooves on a workpiece that are V-shaped.
ways Two precisely measured, parallel tracks that support and guide the movement of the carriage and cross-slide.
workholding device A device used to support, locate, and hold a workpiece. The workholding device references the tool performing the operation on the part being held.
workholding devices Devices used to support, locate, and hold a workpiece. The workholding device references the tool performing the operation on the part being held.
workpiece A part that is being machined.