Manual Machining Training

Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Overview of Manual Mill Setup 200
Description:This class describes the proper setup for a typical mill operation and explains how to determine mill settings, align mill components, and select proper tooling.
Prerequisites: 150110 
Number of Lessons:16
Language:English, Spanish
Go to Catalog

Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • The Importance of Mill Setup
  • Determining Spindle Speed
  • Determining Tool Feed
  • Direction of Feed
  • Mill Coordinates
  • Mill Head Alignment
  • Vise Alignment
  • Workpiece Alignment
  • Readout
  • Establishing Part Zero
  • Establishing Part Zero: An Example
  • Mill Head Movement
  • Cutting Tool Selection
  • Applying Coolant
  • Summary
Class Objectives
  • Describe the general steps of mill setup.
  • Describe ways to determine spindle speed.
  • Describe ways to determine tool feed.
  • Distinguish between conventional and climb milling.
  • Identify the movement of the different axes on the mill.
  • Describe how to check mill head alignment.
  • Describe how to check vise alignment.
  • Describe ways to align the workpiece to the mill table.
  • Distinguish between analog measurement and digital readout.
  • Describe the function of an edge finder.
  • Describe how to establish a part zero location.
  • Describe the purpose of mill head movement.
  • Describe factors that affect cutting tool selection.
  • Describe the different methods of applying coolant.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
analog measurement A type of readout that uses dials with scales inscribed on them to display dimensions on the mill.
axis An imaginary straight line that is used to measure the dimensions of an object.
backlash The relative movement of interlocked mechanical components that occurs when motion is reversed.
blueprint A document containing all the instructions necessary to manufacture a part. The key sections of a blueprint are the drawing, dimensions, and notes.
Cartesian coordinate system The numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes.
climb milling A type of milling that feeds the same direction as the cutter rotation. Climb milling is typically used for finish cutting after a part has been roughed to size. Some manual machines are not capable of climb milling.
collet A split-sleeve device that when expanded or contracted grips a cutting tool in place on the mill.
conventional milling A type of milling that feeds the cutter against the cutter rotation. Conventional milling is typically used for roughing the part to size.
coolant A substance that is used to prevent a workpiece from reaching excessively high temperatures during machining.
datum A point of reference from which measurements are taken. A datum can be a hole, line, or any three-dimensional shape.
depth of cut The distance that the cutting tool is plunged into the workpiece. Depth of cut is typically measured in millimeters or fractions of an inch.
digital readout A type of readout that uses a special encoder attached to a machine that transfers information to a digital display. Very precise measurements can be made with digital readout.
drip A method of delivering coolant to the workpiece that uses a brush to apply the coolant onto the surface of the workpiece.
edge finder A device used on a mill to locate the exact position of a part edge along the X-axis or Y-axis.
end mill A cutting tool that can be used to machine grooves, slots, circular slots, etc. into workpieces.
end milling A milling operation that uses a narrower mill to create pockets and contours in a workpiece.
face milling A milling operation that produces a flat surface by guiding a wider mill across the surface of the workpiece.
feed The rate at which the cutting tool and the workpiece move in relation to one another. On the mill, feed determines the rate at which the spindle enters the workpiece and removes material.
finishing cut A final pass of the cutting tool that emphasizes dimension accuracy, surface finish, higher speeds, and a light depth of cut.
flood cooling A method of delivering coolant to the workpiece with a low-pressure pump.
flute A groove or spiraling recess around the periphery of a cutter that allows for chip flow away from the cut.
heat treatment The controlled heating and cooling processes used to change the structure of a material and alter its physical and mechanical properties.
indicator A measuring instrument with a contact point attached to a spindle that uses gears to move a pointer on the dial. Dial indicators have graduations that are available for reading different measurement values.
knee The device that supports the mill worktable from underneath and can be adjusted vertically.
machinability The relative ease with which a metal can be shaped by various cutting processes.
meters per minute A measurement of speed describing the distance that the tool tip travels in meters in one minute.
milling machine A machine that uses a multi-point tool to remove metal from the surface of a workpiece. Milling machines are typically used to produce rectangular parts.
mist cooling A method of delivering coolant to the workpiece with a mist applicator that carries water and air to cool the workpiece.
parallel A precision-ground support held in the vise that is used to determine alignment of the vise to the worktable.
part zero The starting point of X, Y, and Z mill coordinates. Part zero locations are generally located at the left-front edge of the workpiece.
perpendicular Two lines or axes that meet at right angles. On a vertical mill, the spindle is perpendicular to the worktable.
precision machinist square A precision ground, L-shaped tool that is used to check the squareness of two or more components.
quill The component on the mill that moves the spindle in and out of the power head.
readout The process of reading information from a device and displaying it in an understandable form.
revolutions per minute A unit of measurement for speed that indicates how many times the cutting tool has rotated in one minute.
roughing cut An initial pass of the cutting tool that emphasizes heavy metal removal rates, high feed rates, and a heavy depth of cut.
shell mill Another type of toolholder and cutting tool with multiple cutting teeth around its periphery. A shell mill is typically mounted to an arbor.
spindle speed The rate at which the machine spindle rotates. Spindle speed on the mill is expressed in revolutions per minute.
surface feet per minute A measurement of speed describing the distance that the tool tip travels in one minute. Surface feet per minute is dependent upon the spindle's rpm and the cutting tool's diameter.
tolerance A blueprint specification indicating an unwanted but acceptable deviation from a given dimension.
T-slot An opening in the shape of the letter "T," which can accommodate a T-head bolt.
vise A workholding device with two jaws that grip and hold a workpiece in place.
V-ram The moveable component attached to the mill head that facilitates the machining of oversized parts or long parts that hang over the edge of the mill table.
X-axis On the mill, the linear axis representing coordinate positions along the longest distance parallel to the worktable.
Y-axis On the mill, the linear axis representing coordinate positions along the shortest distance parallel to the worktable.
Z-axis On the mill, the linear axis representing coordinate positions perpendicular to the worktable. The Z-axis is always parallel to the spindle.