What is the definition of "scleroscope"?
A hardness test that measures the rebound of a hammer dropped from a fixed height. The higher the rebound, the higher the hardness.

Learn more about scleroscope in the class Hardness Testing 260 below.


Inspection Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Hardness Testing 260
Description:This class provides an overview of the most common hardness testing methods and describes how to read hardness ratings.
Prerequisites: 500120 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:18
Language:English, Spanish
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is Hardness?
  • Rockwell Hardness Testing
  • Rockwell Hardness Scale
  • Superficial Rockwell Hardness Testing
  • Brinell Hardness Testing
  • Brinell Hardness Scale
  • Vickers Hardness Testing
  • Microhardness Testing
  • Knoop Hardness Testing
  • Ultrasonic Microhardness Testing
  • Scleroscope Testing
  • Leeb Testing
  • The Shore Test and Durometer Hardness
  • International Rubber Hardness Degrees Test
  • Hardness Data Conversion
  • Errors in Hardness Testing
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Define hardness.
  • Describe Rockwell hardness testing.
  • Identify Rockwell notation.
  • Describe Superficial Rockwell hardness testing.
  • Describe Brinell hardness testing.
  • Identify Brinell notation.
  • Describe Vickers hardness testing.
  • Describe microhardness testing.
  • Describe Knoop hardness testing.
  • Describe ultrasonic microhardness testing.
  • Describe scleroscope testing.
  • Describe Leeb testing.
  • Describe Shore testing.
  • Describe International Rubber Hardness Degrees Testing.
  • Describe the conversion of hardness data.
  • Describe common sources of error during hardness testing.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
ball indenter A spherical indenter used in the Brinell test and certain Rockwell tests. Ball indenters are made from hardened steel or tungsten carbide and must be checked periodically for wear.
brale A conical diamond indenter used in Rockwell hardness tests.
Brinell hardness test A hardness test that measures the diameter of a circle formed by the penetration of a 10 mm steel ball under a fixed load pressure.
case hardened Heated within a carbon-rich environment to increase carbon levels on the metal surface. Case hardening creates a hardened exterior shell.
casting A workpiece formed by pouring molten metal into a mold and cooling it into a solid shape. Castings are formed near their finished shape.
cemented carbide A compound developed by the combination of carbon with tungsten, titanium, or tantalum. It is used in metal cutting tools for its hardness and wear resistance.
cold working The shaping of metal at temperatures much lower than the metal's molten state, often at room temperature. Cold working adds certain properties to the metal, such as increased strength and improved surface finish.
diamond pyramid hardness test A hardness test that forces a pyramid-shaped diamond against a material for a standard dwell time to create an indentation. The size of the indentation determines the hardness value. Also known as the Vickers hardness test.
durometer The testing instrument of the Shore hardness test. The durometer is used to test elastic materials.
durometer hardness The hardness value determined by a durometer during a Shore hardness test.
dwell time An intentional time delay during which an indenter is held against a material under load during a hardness test. Dwell time is used to ensure accurate hardness ratings.
elastic modulus The relative force required to elongate a material. The International Rubber Hardness Degrees Test indicates the elastic modulus of test materials.
elastic penetration Metal penetration that is temporary. If a material is penetrated beyond its elasticity, the material experiences plastic penetration.
elastic recovery A period of slight rebound in a material after a load has been removed.
forging A workpiece that has been made by forming bulk solid metal into a specific shape at elevated temperatures.
hardness The ability of a material to resist scratching, abrasion, indentation, or cutting. Hardness is generally measured by the depth or area of penetration under a fixed load using a diamond indenter.
hardness testing Standardized experiments designed to determine how a material responds to external forces that attempt to scratch, penetrate, or indent the material.
hardness value A number from a hardness testing scale that indicates the ability of a material to resist scratching and penetration.
heat treatment The controlled heating and cooling processes used to change the structure of a material and alter its physical and mechanical properties. Heat treating is often used to adjust a material's hardness.
indentation test A type of hardness test in which a hardened indenter is forced against a material under a fixed load. The size of the indentation indicates the hardness of the material.
indenter A device used in a hardness test that is pressed into the test material.
indicator A device that displays a measurement. An indicator may be a dial with a needle or a digital readout.
international rubber hardness degrees test A hardness test that uses minor and major loads to measure the elastic modulus of rubber test materials.
Knoop hardness test A microhardness test that uses a small pyramid-shaped diamond indenter and relatively light loads between 10 g and 1 kilogram. The Knoop indenter has a long diagonal that is perpendicular to and 7 times the length of the short diagonal.
Leeb test A portable hardness test that measures the rebound of a hammer mechanism. Unlike the scleroscope, the Leeb test can be administered from any angle regardless of gravity.
load The overall force applied to an object by external objects.
macrohardness test The hardness testing of normal-sized materials with standard loads, indenters, and dwells.
major load The second and largest static load delivered during a hardness test.
mechanical properties The properties that describe the way a material responds to forces that attempt to bend, break, twist, dent, or scratch it.
microhardness testing Hardness testing that involves very small or brittle test materials and very light loads. Also known as microindentation testing.
microindentation testing Hardness testing that involves very small or brittle test materials and very light loads. Also known as microhardness testing.
microstructure The shape and alignment of the microscopic components of a metal. A material's microstructure often determines its hardness, toughness, and other properties.
minor load The first and smallest static load delivered during a hardness test.
nonferrous material A metal that does not contain iron as a main ingredient. Common nonferrous metals include aluminum, titanium, copper, and nickel.
ocular scale A scale built into a microscope that makes it possible to view magnified images and measure very small features.
physical properties The way that a material reacts to forces other than mechanical forces. Melting, freezing, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity are all physical properties.
plastic penetration Metal penetration that is permanent. During hardness testing, plastic penetration is measured to determine hardness.
polishing An abrasive finishing process used to improve the surface of a part.
properties The characteristics of a material that distinguish it from other materials.
Rockwell hardness test A hardness test that measures the degree of penetration into a metal caused by a diamond or ball indenter that is applied under a fixed load.
scale A hardness testing measurement standard based on several factors including the indenter, the type of material being tested, and the size of the test loads.
scleroscope A hardness test that measures the rebound of a hammer dropped from a fixed height. The higher the rebound, the higher the hardness.
Shore hardness test A hardness test designed for elastic materials such as rubbers. The Shore tester is called a durometer.
static load An external force that is applied and held in a fixed position for a specific amount of time. Static loads are an important component of standardized hardness tests.
Superficial Rockwell hardness test A Rockwell test designed for thin test materials. The Superifical Rockwell test is identical to the Rockwell test, except the minor load is 3 kg and the major load is either 15, 30, or 45 kilograms.
tungsten carbide The original carbide tool material that offers excellent hardness and wear resistance.
ultrasonic microhardness test A microhardness test that vibrates a Vickers diamond against a workpiece under a specific load. The change in frequency determines the material's hardness value.
Vickers hardness test A hardness test that forces a pyramid-shaped diamond against a material for a standard dwell time to create an indentation. The size of the indentation determines the hardness value. Also known as the diamond pyramid hardness test.
Vickers microhardness test A Vickers test for microhardness that uses light loads between 1 g and 2 kg to test small or thin materials.