Aaxis

A rotational axis that describes motion around the Xaxis.

algorithm

A mathematical process designed to systematically solve a problem.

articulated robot

A type of robotic arm that closely resembles a human arm. The arm of an articulated robot has revolute joints and the number of joints can vary.

axes

Imaginary straight lines or circles used to describe the location or movement of an object in the Cartesian coordinate system.

Baxis

A rotational axis that describes motion around the Yaxis.

Cartesian coordinate system

A numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes.

Cartesian robot

A type of robotic arm that has prismatic joints only. The linear movement of the joints gives the Cartesian robot a highly rigid structure that allows it to lift heavy objects.

Caxis

A rotational axis that describes motion around the Zaxis.

CNC

A type of programmable control system, directed by mathematical data, which uses microcomputers to carry out various machining operations.

continuous path

A type of robot programming that has the manipulator move smoothly without stopping along its path.

degrees of freedom

The available ways a component can move in threedimensional space along an axis. Robots typically have 3 to 6 degrees of freedom.

endeffector

The end component of a robotic arm that is shaped like a hand or like a specialized tool. Also known as endofarm tool (EOAT).

forward kinematics

The calculating of the position or motion of each robotic link as a function of joint displacements.

industrial robot

A programmable mechanical device that is used in place of a person to perform dangerous or repetitive tasks with a high degree of accuracy.

inverse kinematics

The calculating of joint displacements needed to move the endeffector to a desired position and orientation.

Jacobian

A matrix quantity that maps velocities in joint space to velocities in Cartesian space.

joint

The location at which two or more parts of a robotic arm make contact. Joints allow parts to move in different directions.

joint space

The space defined by a vector that contains the displacement of each joint linkage relative to a reference point.

kinematics

The science of motion without regard for the forces that cause that motion. In robotics, kinematics involves studying the mapping of coordinates in motion.

linear joint

A joint that moves in a straight line across one axis. Also known as a prismatic joint.

linear movement

Movement in a straight line across one axis.

link

A fastener that joins or connects the parts of a robotic arm.

map

A function that matches elements from one data set to a unique element in another data set. In robotics, Jacobians map data from joint space to Cartesian space.

matrix quantity

A set of velocities that is expressed as a series of vectors.

origin

The fixed, central point in the Cartesian coordinate system. The origin has a numerical value of zero at each axis.

part program

A series of numerical instructions used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to machine a specific workpiece.

point to point

A type of robot programming that has the manipulator reach a set point, stop, complete its task, and then move to the next set point.

position vector

A set of three vector points along a specific axis that is used to fix a location in space.

prismatic joint

A joint that moves in a straight line across one axis. Also known as a linear joint.

revolute joint

A joint that rotates around more than one axis.

right angle

An angle formed by two lines that are perpendicular to one another. The corners of a piece of paper form right angles.

righthand rule

A quick reference that shows the X, Y, and Zaxes. A person displays his or her right hand, and the first three fingers from the right each represent the X, Y, and Zaxis in order.

rotation matrix

A mathematical way to describe a point in space by using vectors of the principal axes in terms of the attached coordinate system.

rotational axes

The axes that describe turning or rotation around the linear axes.

singularities

Points at which the calculation of the Jacobian does not have a unique solution.

teaching

A process used to program a robot and control its movements.

tool coordinates

A robot coordinate system that sets the origin at the endeffector. Tool coordinates change their orientation as the tool moves.

trajectory generation

The process of computing different motion functions so that a robot's various joints move in a coordinated fashion.

vector quantities

Amounts or measurements that are related to a direction. Velocity, acceleration, and weight are vector quantities.

via point

An intermediate location through which the manipulator must pass on its way to the destination. Via points are required for circular motion because three points are needed to define the function of a circle.

work cell

The defined area of space through which a robot can move. Also known as the work envelope.

work envelope

The defined area of space through which a robot can move. Also known as the work cell.

world coordinates

A robot coordinate system that sets the origin at the centerline of the first joint. World coordinates are static.

Xaxis

The linear axis representing sidetoside movement in a robot, relative to the origin.

Yaxis

The linear axis representing back and forth movement in a robot, relative to the origin.

Zaxis

The linear axis that represents up and down movement in a robot, relative to the origin.
