What is the definition of "non-contact force"?
A force that can cause or change motion of an object without actually touching it. Gravity and magnetic forces are non-contact forces.

## Mechanical Systems Training

Class Information
 Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
 Class Name: Forces of Machines 110 Description: This class identifies the various types of mechanical forces and describes how these forces act on objects. Includes an Interactive Lab. Difficulty: Beginner Number of Lessons: 17 Language: English, Spanish

Class Outline
• Objectives
• Understanding Mechanical Forces
• Measurement of Motion: Direction
• Measurement of Motion: Linear Speed and Velocity
• Measurement of Motion: Rotary Speed and Velocity
• Torque
• Momentum
• Non-Contact Forces
• Gravity
• Contact Forces
• Friction
• The Role of Forces: Statics and Dynamics
• The Characteristics of Forces
• Scalar and Vector Quantities
• Newton’s Laws of Motion
• Energy
• Summary

Class Objectives
• Define work.
• Identify the major types of motion.
• Identify measurements of linear velocity.
• Identify measurements of rotary speed.
• Define torque.
• Define momentum.
• Identify non-contact forces.
• Define gravity.
• Identify contact forces.
• Describe friction.
• Distinguish between statics and dynamics.
• Identify characteristics of forces.
• Distinguish between scalar quantities and vector quantities.
• Identify Newton’s Laws of Motion.
• Distinguish between potential energy and kinetic energy.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
To gain velocity or increase speed in a given direction.
The rate of change of velocity.
A figure formed by the intersection of two lines. Angles are also used to measure distances around a circle.
Circular motion that is measured in changes in angular position. Angular motion is measured in units of degrees or radians.
The energy or effort provided to a machine to perform work. Applied force has many forms, from the power of an electric motor to the push from human hands.
The amount of two-dimensional space. Area is also used to measure the outermost surface of an object.
An imaginary straight line that passes through the center of an object. Objects typically rotate around an axis.
A setup on a machine consisting of two round, fixed pulleys. One pulley is powered and moves a belt, which in turn moves the other pulley.
A device used to stop motion, usually through friction.
A low-friction, circular lever consisting of a lobe and a shaft that transforms circular motion into linear motion. Cams are often used in combustion engines.
A small unit of linear measurement in the metric system. One centimeter equals approximately 0.3937 inch in the English system.
A force that can cause or change motion of an object by touching it. Motors, gears, levers, and fluid power all operate through contact forces.
To lose velocity or reduce speed in a given direction.
A unit of angular measurement. There are 360 degrees in a complete circle.
The amount of mass within a specific volume. Objects with greater density increase in mass and weight.
The path that an object takes when it moves.
The linear space between two objects or points.
The branch of the science of mechanics that deals with objects that are not in equilibrium.
Magnetism produced by an electric current.
The capacity to do work. Energy may be potential or kinetic and may appear as electrical, mechanical, thermal, or chemical energy.
A standard system of measurements based on the inch, second, pound, and Fahrenheit degrees. English measurements are primarily used in the United States and England.
A state of sameness. Objects that are in equilibrium are either completely still or moving at a consistent rate.
A unit of linear measurement in the English system. One foot equals twelve inches.
An influence that produces a change in an object's motion or state of rest. A force has a specific direction and magnitude.
A force that resists motion between two objects that are in contact with each other. Smoother surfaces exhibit less friction, while rougher surfaces exhibit more friction.
A disc or wheel that contains evenly spaced teeth around its perimeter. Gears are usually used in pairs to transmit energy and motion.
The force of attraction between masses. Gravity is the force that makes objects fall to the ground.
A system that uses liquids to transmit motion to mechanical parts.
A small unit of linear measurement in the English system. One inch equals approximately 2.54 centimeters in the metric system.
A simple machine consisting of a flat, angled surface used to raise objects. The mechanical advantage of an inclined plane increases with its length.
The tendency of an object to remain at rest until acted on by a force.
A unit of linear measurement in the metric system. One kilometer equals 1,000 meters.
Energy of an object that has been put in motion.
Motion that takes place along a straight line. Linear motion can be measured using the English or metric system.
The opposition to applied force, such as a weight to be carried or moved.
A device or object that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field.
The measurement of the amount of an applied force.
The amount of matter in an object. Mass gives an object weight when it is acted upon by gravity.
The material or substance that makes up an object. Matter has both mass and volume.
The branch of physics concerned with the motion of objects. Mechanics deals with different forces that cause or prevent motion.
A base unit of linear measurement in the metric system. One meter equals 10 centimeters.
A standard system of measurements based on the meter, second, kilogram, and Celsius degrees. The metric system is internationally recognized.
A unit of linear measurement in the English system, used for long distances. A mile contains 5,280 feet.
The quantity of motion affecting an object. Momentum is mass multiplied by the velocity of an object.
A set of three rules that describe the behavior of moving objects.
A force that can cause or change motion of an object without actually touching it. Gravity and magnetic forces are non-contact forces.
Forming a right angle by intersecting another line.
A system that uses air or gases to transmit motion to mechanical parts.
The place on the object where the force is applied. Point of application can affect forces such as torque and momentum.
Stored energy with the potential to do work. Potential energy is often the result of an elevated position that can be acted upon by gravity.
A circular device that is used to raise or lower a load or transmit motion. A pulley may be moveable or fixed.
A unit of angular measurement for the metric system. One radian is equal to approximately 57.3 degrees.
The number of times a component rotates 360 degrees, or in a complete circle, in one minute. Revolutions per minute (rpm) is a measurement of rotary speed.
A method of determining the direction of rotary movement by wrapping one's right-hand fingers around the axis of rotation. Clockwise rotation points the thumb toward the person, and counterclockwise rotation points the thumb away.
Spinning or turning motion that takes place around an axis, without a change in linear position.
A measure of circular motion found by counting the number of revolutions that occur in a specific amount of time.
The angular change of position in a specific amount of time. Rotary velocity is measured in either degrees per second or radians per second.
An amount or measurement that is not related to direction. Speed, volume, and temperature are scalar quantities.
A long, narrow board balanced in the middle on a fulcrum in such a way that as one end goes up, the other goes down.
The amount of distance traveled in a given period of time. Speed is used to measure both linear and rotational movement.
A buildup of electric charge on an object or a person. When discharged, static electricity can cause a slight shock.
The branch of the science of mechanics that deals with objects that are in equilibrium. A static object is either completely still or moving at a consistent rate.
The amount of hotness or coldness of an object.
A force causing rotation.
An amount or measurement that is related to a direction. Velocity, acceleration, and weight are vector quantities.
The combination of an object's speed and direction of motion. Unlike speed, velocity always implies a direction.
The amount of three-dimensional space occupied by an object.
The force of a mass due to gravity. Without gravity, objects have no weight.
A simple machine consisting of a round disc or wheel with a central pole at its axis.
The result of a force applied to an object and the distance through which the force is applied. In an equation, work is force multiplied by distance.