Mechanical Systems Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Spring Applications 220
Description:This class discusses different types of springs, how they are used in machines, and how to select the right spring for a particular application.
Prerequisites: 560100  560200 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:18
Language:English, Spanish
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is a Spring?
  • How Do Mechanical Springs Work?
  • Understanding Load
  • Factors Affecting Spring Selection
  • Coil Springs
  • Coil Compression Springs
  • Selecting Coil Compression Springs
  • Coil Compression Spring Life
  • Extension Springs
  • Comparing Coil Compression and Extension Springs
  • Coil Torsion Springs
  • Selecting Torsion Springs
  • Flat Springs and Torsion Bars
  • Other Mechanical Springs
  • Fluid, Hydraulic, and Pneumatic Springs
  • Installing and Inspecting Mechanical Springs
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe the use of springs.
  • Describe how force affects a linear spring.
  • Describe load.
  • List factors affecting spring selection.
  • Describe coil springs.
  • Describe coil compression springs.
  • List coil compression spring specifications.
  • Describe procedures that extend compression spring life
  • Describe extension springs.
  • Distinguish between coil compression and extension springs.
  • Describe torsion springs.
  • List coil torsion spring specifications.
  • Describe flat springs and torsion bars.
  • Describe less commonly used mechanical springs.
  • Describe fluid springs.
  • Describe important considerations for installing and maintaining mechanical springs.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
active coils The coils in a coil spring that move or deflect under a load.
angular return torque The movement of the torsion spring as it moves back to its original shape after being deflected.
axis An imaginary straight line that passes through the center of an object.
beam spring A simple type of spring made of a small, flat piece of metal. Beam springs are used in many automotive applications, such as suspension systems. Beam springs are also called flat springs and leaf springs.
Belleville washer A conical washer that can be stacked to create a powerful compression spring. The Belleville washer is often used to support applications with high loads and insufficient space for a coil spring.
buckling A type of damage to coil compression springs in which the spring is permanently deformed after reaching solid compression due to operating under to a heavier load than it can withstand. Buckling appears as a bowing or side-ways deflection.
chassis The frame of a machine, such as a car or clothes washer.
chrome silicon A type of steel made from two alloys that is used in large-diameter spring wire. Chrome silicon can handle higher stresses than chrome vanadium and is also known as ASTM A 401.
chrome vanadium A type of steel made from two alloys that is used in large-diameter spring wire. Chrome vanadium is an excellent choice for high-stress applications and is also known as ASTM A 231.
clash allowance The amount of space available between a spring's compression height under maximum load and its solid compression height. Coil compression springs are often designed with a 10% difference between maximum load height and solid compression to avoid coil clash.
coil clash An event that occurs when a compression spring is subjected to a shock load causing solid compression. Normally, springs are designed with a clash allowance of 10% to prevent solid compression and coil clash.
coil compression spring A type of coil spring designed to compress and become smaller when presented with compressive load. Coil compression springs are often referred to simply as compression springs, but there are other types of compression springs used for special applications.
coil spring A type of spring formed by winding strips of metal around a cylinder or cone to create a helical or conical shape. Coil springs are the most common type of spring.
compression spring A type of spring designed to compress and become smaller when presented with compressive load. Compression spring normally refers to a coil compression spring, but there are other types of springs and spring-like objects used as compression springs in special applications.
compressive load A force or pressure that attempts to flatten or squeeze a material. Compression springs are designed to support compressive loads.
conical Having a cone shape. Most coil springs are helical, but conical shapes are used in some applications requiring compressive springs.
conical spring A cone-shaped coil compressive spring. Conical springs are used when there is insufficient space for a helical spring and in some dynamic load applications.
constant-force extension spring A type of spring designed with curved strips of steel that prevent uncoiling except under constant force. The constant-force extension spring is commonly used in timers and movie cameras.
corrosion The gradual chemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture, or other agents.
critical stress An area of a component most likely to be permanently deformed or damaged when in use. The critical stress regions of an extension spring are its hooks.
dampen To lessen a force. Springs in automobile suspension systems dampen forces when cars encounter road bumps.
deflection The degree of change in shape when a force is applied. Springs deflect and change their shape to absorb forces.
dynamic load A type of load that changes in the direction or degree of force during operation.
elastic Capable of resuming original shape after experiencing temporary deformation. Mechanical springs are elastic devices.
elastic limit The limit at which objects no longer resume their original shape after becoming temporarily deformed. Springs operating outside of their elastic limit become permanently deformed.
end coils The outermost coils in a coil spring that are used to attach the spring to the machine it supports. End coils can be ground and squared to increase their strength.
extended length An extension spring's maximum allowable length before it suffers permanent deformation.
extension spring A type of spring designed to support tensile, or pulling, loads. Extension springs are also called tensile springs.
fatigue A condition in which metals begin to fail after being exposed to improper load conditions. Coil springs can suffer fatigue due to excess loads, too many deflections, or extreme temperatures.
flat spring A simple type of spring made of a small, flat piece of metal. Flat springs are used in many automotive applications, such as suspension systems. Flat springs are also called beam springs and leaf springs.
fluid spring A type of spring that uses pressurized fluids such as liquid or gas to provide resistance to force. Some fluid springs are supported by mechanical springs.
foot-pounds A common unit in the English system used to measure torque.
force An influence that produces a change in an object's motion or state of rest. Springs operate by dampening and applying force.
free length The length of a spring when not under load. Free length is one of the variables needed when ordering a spring.
ground Flattened to provide an improved contact surface. Ground ends help to improve compression springs' ability to handle load.
hard-drawn wire A general purpose carbon steel wire that is the least expensive option available. Hard-drawn wire is used only for low stress applications and it is also known as ASTM A227.
helical Having a spiral shape. The helical spring is the most common shape.
helical spring A type of spring formed by winding strips of metal around a cylinder. The helical spring is the most common spring.
Hooke's Law of Elasticity A law that describes the operation of a linear spring. The distance the spring travels when deflected is directly related to the amount of force exerted upon it.
hydraulic power Power created by the control and motion of liquids under pressure.
hydraulic spring A type of spring that is primarily non-mechanical and is powered by pressurized liquids such as water or oil. Automobile shock absorbers often contain hydraulic springs.
inch-pounds A unit in the English system used to measure torque.
kinetic energy Energy in motion. Upon deflection, a spring releases kinetic energy when returning to its original shape.
leaf spring A simple type of spring made of a small, flat piece of metal often used in automotive applications, such as suspension systems. Leaf springs are also called beam springs and flat springs.
linear movement Movement along a straight line. In coil compression springs, end plates are designed to be almost in contact with the next coil to allow for linear movement.
linear spring A type of spring designed so that the force deflecting the spring is in direct proportion to the distance the spring travels. The linear spring is the most common type of spring.
load The overall force that is applied to a material or structure. Springs absorb and exert energy from loads.
load rate The speed at which load is presented to a component. One factor in spring design is the rate of load the spring will experience in operation.
mean diameter A measurement of a spring's outside diameter (OD), minus one wire diameter.
mechanical device A device that operates by reacting to and producing force and motion. Springs are mechanical devices that react to and exert a force and motion.
mechanical power Power created by the physical interaction and motion of components.
mechanical system A collection of machines functioning together to perform useful work. Springs are often used in mechanical systems for dampening forces or storing energy.
multi-leaf spring A type of flat spring made by combining pieces of metal. Multi-leaf springs can dampen friction but can accept load in one direction only.
music wire A small diameter wire made of high-carbon steel often used in high-stress application springs. Music wire is also known as ASTM A228.
Newton-meter A unit in the metric system used to measure torque.
oil-tempered wire A general purpose high-carbon steel used in making springs. Oil-tempered wire is available in larger diameters than music wire and is less expensive. It is also known as ASTM A229.
overload stop A situation in which the end coils of a compression spring stop machine support because the spring is overloaded and can no longer operate. The overload stop feature is an important safety feature because it can prevent injury and machine damage.
plain ends End coils of a coil compression spring that have not been squared or ground. Plain ends are not used in safety critical or important applications requiring a high degree of accuracy.
pneumatic power Power created by the control and motion of gases under pressure.
pneumatic spring A type of spring that operates using pressurized gas such as air or nitrogen. Automobile shock absorbers sometimes contain pneumatic springs.
potential energy Stored energy with the potential to do work. Springs store potential energy when deflected.
preloading A procedure used by spring manufacturers to increase the operating capabilities of coil springs. Preloading consists of creating a slightly longer spring than needed and applying an initial amount of load to create some set before being shipped to the customer.
set A type of permanent deformation that occurs when a spring is subjected to improperly high load conditions. Compression springs should experience no more than 2% set.
shear strength A material's ability to resist forces that attempt to cause it to become permanently deformed by sliding against itself. Excessive shear strain can cause a spring to break.
shearing Damage that occurs when a spring breaks when subjected to a heavy load causing excess transverse, or perpendicular strain.
shock load A type of load characterized by extreme speed and a tremendous amount of force.
shot peening A procedure used by manufacturers to increase the operating capabilities of metals used in components. Shot peening is accomplished by blasting metal surfaces with small particles that increase the material's strength and ability to withstand different types of damage.
solid compression The height of a compression spring when fully compressed. It is often necessary to know the solid compression height needed when ordering a compression spring.
spline Teeth added to shafts and inner-connecting components that ensure they move together. In many devices, splines fit loosely and provide flexibility in movement.
spring An elastic device used to dampen and apply force, control motion and vibration, and store energy.
spring index A ratio comparing the mean coil diameter to the wire diameter.
spring rate The amount of force necessary to compress a spring. Spring rate is an important factor in compression spring design because springs should be capable of compressing, but should not normally reach solid compression.
spring washer A simple component used with screws and other fasteners to provide flexibility and reduce stress.
squared Cut to provide almost direct contact with the next coil. Squared ends help to improve compression springs' ability to handle load.
static load A type of load that maintains the same direction and degree of force during operation.
stress A force that attempts to deform an object. Deflection is a source of stress for springs.
tensile load A force that attempts to pull apart or stretch an object. Extension springs are designed to support tensile loads.
tensile spring A type of spring designed to support tensile, or pulling, loads. Tensile springs are also called extension springs.
tensile strength A material's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. Extension springs operating above their tensile strength will break.
torque A force causing rotation. Torsion springs are designed to apply or dampen torque.
torsion bar A very simple type of spring consisting of a bar that deforms slightly when loaded. It is often used in car suspension systems.
torsion load A type of load that causes objects to twist due to torque. Torsion springs are designed to dampen or apply torque.
torsion spring A type of spring that transmits torque in machines by bending in one or two directions, depending on the type of torque needed.
torsional strength A type of shear stress that attempts to twist a material against itself. A spring can become deformed if it operates beyond its torsional strength limit.
unloaded Not experiencing a load. An unloaded spring is not being deflected.
volute spring A type of spring formed by wrapping strips of metal inside each other to create a conical shape with all pieces touching. The volute spring is expensive but is more stable than a coil spring because the coils touch.
working range The range of operating conditions within which springs can function without becoming permanently deformed. Some of the conditions affecting working range are the speed of operation and the amount and type of load supported.
yield strength The maximum force that a material can withstand before it begins to permanently deform.