What is the definition of "Charles’ Law"?
A gas law stating that the volume of a gas has a direct relationship with temperature when pressure is held constant. If volume increases, then temperature increases, and vice versa, when pressure is constant.

Learn more about Charles’ Law in the class Intro to Pneumatic Components 125 below.


Hydraulics and Pneumatics Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Intro to Pneumatic Components 125
Description:This class presents an overview of basic pneumatic system components.
Prerequisites: none
Difficulty:Beginner
Number of Lessons:17
Language:English, Spanish
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is Pneumatic Power?
  • Types of Pneumatic Components
  • Pneumatic Fluids
  • Gas Laws
  • Compressors
  • Types of Compressors
  • Conductors
  • Air Receiver
  • Pressure-Relief Valves
  • Pressure Regulation Valves
  • Control Valves
  • Linear Actuators
  • Rotary Actuators
  • Air Preparation
  • Air Treatment
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Define pneumatic power.
  • Identify common components of a pneumatic system.
  • Describe pneumatic fluid.
  • Describe the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature.
  • Describe a pneumatic compressor.
  • Identify different types of compressors.
  • Describe the types of pneumatic fluid conductors.
  • Describe an air receiver.
  • Describe a relief valve.
  • Describe a pressure regulating valve.
  • Describe various control valves.
  • Describe linear actuators.
  • Describe rotary actuators.
  • Describe a separator.
  • Describe a lubricator.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
actuator A component such as a cylinder, motor, and rotary actuator that directly helps convert pneumatic energy into mechanical energy.
aftercooler A component that cools compressed air.
air The ambient mix of gases including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor that is a normal part of the earth's lower atmosphere.
air receiver A component that stores compressed gas and helps stockpile a constant supply of pressurized gas.
ambient air Air coming from the surrounding environment.
ball valve A spherical valve with a hole that opens or closes by rotating 90 degrees.
blower The rotors of a lobed-rotor compressor. Common blowers have either 2 or 3 lobes.
blow-off pressure The point at which the internal pressure of a pneumatic system triggers a relief valve. Also called the cracking pressure.
Boyle’s Law A gas law stating that the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship when temperature is held constant. If pressure increases, then volume decreases, and vice versa, when temperature is constant.
Charles’ Law A gas law stating that the volume of a gas has a direct relationship with temperature when pressure is held constant. If volume increases, then temperature increases, and vice versa, when pressure is constant.
check valve A pneumatic control valve that allows fluid to flow in one direction. Check valves prevent backflow.
compressibility The ability to be compressed by pressure. Gases have high compressibility, while liquids do not.
compressor A component that pressurizes ambient air and directs it into a pneumatic system.
conductor The components such as pipes, tubes, and hoses that convey gases throughout a pneumatic system.
control valve A component that controls the flow of pneumatic gases. Control valves include on-and-off valves and directional control valves.
cracking pressure The point at which the internal pressure of a pneumatic system triggers a relief valve. Also called the blow-off pressure.
crank A rod that spins and drives a piston in a piston compressor. The crank is powered by a prime mover.
cubic feet per minute A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Cubic feet per minute is abbreviated cfm.
cylinder An actuator that helps convert pneumatic energy into mechanical energy.
density The relative "compactness" of a material. Density is the mass of a material per unit volume.
dew point The temperature at which vapor condenses from the atmosphere and forms a liquid.
diaphragm A spring-loaded valve mechanism that moves in response to variations in pressure in a pneumatic system. The diaphragm moves the poppet.
direct relationship An association in which the value of one variable increases while the value of the other variable increases as well, and vice versa. A direct relationship is also called a positive relationship.
dithering The continuous opening and closing movement of a poppet in suspension.
double-acting cylinder A pneumatic actuator that directs energy in two directions.
expandability A measure of the tendency to expand. Gases tend to expand until they fill whatever contains them.
flow rate A specification of a compressor that indicates how much air a compressor can move in a certain amount of time. Flow rate for pneumatic pumps is measured in cubic feet per minute.
fluid power Power derived from the motion and pressure of a fluid, such as water, oil, or air. Hydraulics and pneumatics are sources of fluid power.
force multiplication The exponential increase in available power usually associated with tools and power transmission systems.
FRL A device that conditions air for use in pneumatic systems. A filter-regulator-lubricator is commonly called an FRL.
gas A fluid phase of matter characterized by the tendency to flow and to expand indefinitely.
Gay-Lussac’s law A gas law stating that the temperature of a gas has a direct relationship with pressure when volume is constant. If temperature increases, then pressure increases, and vice versa, when volume is constant.
globe valve A valve that adjusts the flow of pneumatic fluid between and including fully on and fully off. The globe valve consists of a circular plug and a tapered seat.
gripper A mechanical device that uses rotary and linear actuators to mimic the motion of the human hand.
hose A type of pneumatic fluid conductor that joins other components usually in a non-linear fashion. Hose bends and flexes and is the most versatile pneumatic conductor.
ideal gas law A gas law stating that the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship when temperature is constant, and that the temperature of a gas has a direct relationship to both pressure and volume when either one is constant.
impeller The rotors of a lobed-rotor compressor. Common impellers have either 2 or 3 lobes.
inlet valve A one-way valve that allows air into a compressor.
inverse relationship An association in which the value of one variable increases while the value of the other variable decreases, and vice versa. An inverse relationship is also called a negative relationship.
linear actuator An actuator that directs force in a straight line. A cylinder is a linear actuator.
load The amount of force or pressure placed on a component or system.
lobe The portions of a lobed-rotor compressor's impeller that interlocks and provides the ability to compress air.
lobed-rotor compressor A compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from two interlocking gear-type rotors called impellers or blowers.
lubricator A component that releases an oil mist into certain portions of a pneumatic system to lubricate moving parts.
mechanical energy Energy used to perform work through the physical interaction and motion of instruments or tools.
mechanical power Power created by the physical interaction and motion of instruments or tools.
needle valve A valve that adjusts the flow of pneumatic fluid between and including fully on and fully off. The needle valve consists of a sharp conical obstruction that mates with a sharp conical depression.
oil scrubber A component that removes oil vapors from certain areas of a pneumatic system to prevent valve clogging and seal failure.
outlet valve A one-way valve that allows compressed air out of a compressor.
pipe A type of pneumatic fluid conductor that joins other components usually in a straight line and on a permanent basis.
piston A rod inside a cylinder that is moved by pneumatic pressure.
piston compressor A pneumatic compressor that uses a piston driven by a rotating crankshaft to pressurize air in a pneumatic system.
plug valve A cylindrical, tapered valve that is raised or lowered within a seat to maintain, restrict, or completely shut off flow.
pneumatic motor A device which converts the energy from gas flow into mechanical motion. A pneumatic motor is a type of fluid motor that is cable of continuous motion.
pneumatic power Power derived from the motion and pressure of a gas, such as air.
poppet A valve mechanism that continually opens and closes in response to variations in pressure. The poppet is attached to a spring-loaded diaphragm.
poppet valve A pneumatic control valve that redirects the flow of gas when actuated.
pressure The exertion of force upon a fluid. Pressure can cause changes to the properties of a gas.
pressure regulating valve A component that monitors gas passageways in a pneumatic system in order to maintain a consistent pressure level.
pressure switch A mechanism that regulates pressure in an air receiver. Pressure switches are actuated by a change in pressure.
prime mover The component of a pneumatic system that powers the compressor.
rack-and-pinion actuator A pneumatic rotary actuator that directs energy in a circular motion through the use of a toothed piston that moves linearly and turns a toothed gear.
reciprocating compressor A compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from a component, usually a piston, that moves back and forth.
reciprocating motion Back-and-forth movement.
relief valve A component that allows pressurized gas to escape a pneumatic system when the pressure of the system reaches a critical point, beyond which damage can occur.
revolutions per minute The number of times a component rotates 360°, or in a complete circle, in one minute. Revolutions per minute (rpm) is a measurement of speed.
rotary actuator An actuator that directs force in a circular motion.
rotary compressor A compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from a spinning component.
rotary screw compressor A compressor that derives its pressurizing ability from two interlocking threaded cylinders. The male-female thread interaction traps and compresses air.
rotary valve A pneumatic control valve that redirects the flow of gas when turned.
rotor The main spinning portion of a rotary compressor.
schedule 40 The most common pipe designation that indicates the thickness of pipe wall and how much pressure a pipe can withstand. Other schedules include 80, 10, and 5.
separator A component that removes water from cooled air so that it does not build up and damage the pneumatic system.
single-acting cylinder A pneumatic actuator that directs energy in one direction.
solenoid A coil of wire that generates an electromagnetic force when a current is applied. When activated, solenoids can open and close valves.
spool valve A valve that controls the direction of pneumatic flow. A spool valve consists of cylindrical spools that alternately block and open channels in the pneumatic system.
temperature A measurement of the thermal energy in a substance. Molecular activity determines temperature, or the hotness or coldness of an object.
torque The force exerted in rotation.
tubing A type of pneumatic fluid conductor that joins other components usually in a non-linear fashion. Despite being stronger than pipe, tubing is easily bent.
vane A retractable spring-loaded mechanism that extends radially from the center of a compressor rotor. Vanes trap and move fluid to an outlet port.
vane actuator A pneumatic rotary actuator that directs energy in a circular motion through the use of a pivoting mechanism.
vane compressor A pneumatic compressor that consists of a rotor mounted off-center in a circular cavity. As the rotor spins, vanes trap and compress air.
volume The amount of three-dimensional space that an object occupies. Solids and liquids have definite volume, while gases have indefinite volume.
work The result of force applied to an object over a distance.