## Hydraulics and Pneumatics Training

Class Information
 Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
 Class Name: Pneumatic Power Variables 205 Description: This class discusses the variables involved in pneumatic power transmission and how they describe the capabilities of a pneumatic system. Difficulty: Intermediate Number of Lessons: 17 Language: English, Spanish

Class Outline
• Objectives
• What Is Pneumatic Power?
• Pneumatic Power Variables
• Pressure
• Pressure Ratings
• Ideal Pressures
• Temperature
• Volume, Pressure, and Temperature
• Flow Rate
• Effect of Flow Rate
• Displacement
• Speed
• Horsepower and Torque
• Noise
• Efficiency
• Choosing Pneumatic Components
• Summary

Class Objectives
• Define pneumatic power.
• Describe pneumatic power variables.
• Describe pressure.
• Define common pressure ratings.
• Identify the ideal pressure of a pneumatic system.
• Identify a proper working temperature range.
• Describe the relationship between volume, pressure, and temperature.
• Describe flow rate.
• Describe the effects of flow rate.
• Define displacement.
• Describe speed.
• Describe the relationship betweeen horsepower and torque.
• Describe noise in a pneumatic power system.
• Define efficiency.
• Describe the influences on the choice of components.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Actual cubic feet per minute is also called cubic feet per minute and is abbreviated acfm.
The amount of power a pneumatic power system actually delivers.
A component such as a cylinder, motor, or rotary device that directly helps convert pneumatic energy into mechanical energy.
A component that cools compressed air coming from a compressor. An aftercooler is a type of heat exchanger that also removes moisture.
A decibel scale that reflects the exclusion of frequencies that humans do not normally hear.
A unit of pressure equal to 100,000 pascals or 14.504 psi.
To remove condensed water from the receiver area of a pneumatic system.
The pressure rating that indicates the pressure at which a component failed during a pressure rating test.
A pneumatic variable that indicates the volume of fluid a component can contain. Capacity is also used occasionally to indicate flow rate.
In the metric or SI system, the number of centimeters that a pneumatic component such as a piston actuator travels in one minute. Centimeters per minute is abbreviated cpm.
In the metric or SI system, the number of centimeters that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one second. Centimeters per second is abbreviated cm/s.
The act of applying pressure to a gas in order to increase density and lower volume. Compression also raises the temperature in pneumatic systems.
A component that pressurizes ambient air and directs it into a pneumatic system.
A component such as a pipe, tube, or hose that conveys gases throughout a pneumatic system.
A measurement of volume that is abbreviated cm³.
A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Cubic feet per minute is abbreviated cfm.
A measurement of volume that is abbreviated cu in or in³.
A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic meters of air pass by a stationary point in one hour. Cubic meters per hour is abbreviated m³/hr.
A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic meters of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. Cubic meters per minute is abbreviated m³/min.
One complete revolution or rotation of a rotary pneumatic component, or one complete extension and retraction of a linear pneumatic component.
A unit of measurement that describes the intensity of a sound wave.
A pneumatic power variable that indicates how much air is moved by a pneumatic compressor in one cycle. Displacement is measured in cubic inches per revolution or cubic centimeters per revolution.
The flow rate that a pneumatic power system actually delivers during operation.
The amount of power output by a fluid power system compared to the amount of power input.
The directional movement of air in a pneumatic system. Flow in a fluid system can be laminar or turbulent.
A pneumatic power variable that describes how much air is being moved and how much work is being performed. Flow capacity, or flow rate, is usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (lpm).
A pneumatic power variable that describes how much air is being moved and how much work is being performed. Flow rate is usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (lpm).
Power derived from the motion and pressure of a fluid, such as water, oil, or air. Hydraulics and pneumatics are sources of fluid power.
A measurement of force indicating the amount of energy needed to move one pound a distance of one foot.
The push or pull that gives energy to an object.
The exponential increase in available power usually associated with tools and power transmission systems.
The number of sound wave oscillations or vibrations in a unit of time. Measured in Hertz (HZ), high frequencies involve more wave cycles than low frequencies in the same amount of time.
A unit of power used to describe the strength of a pneumatic component. One horsepower equals 746 watts.
In the English system, the number of linear inches that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one minute. Inches per minute is abbreviated ipm.
In the English system, the number of linear inches that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one second. Inches per second is abbreviated ips.
A component that cools air inside a compressor. An intercooler is a type of heat exchanger that also removes moisture.
Parallel streams or layers of fluid that flow together and are indicative of laminar flow in a fluid system. The presence of laminae is desirable.
The type of flow in a fluid system characterized by the presence of laminae, or parallel layers of fluid. Also called streamline flow, laminar flow is desirable because of its efficiency.
Motion that takes place along a straight line.
MAWP. The pressure rating that indicates the maximum pressure a conductor should experience in service. MAWP is called working pressure.
Power created by the physical interaction and motion of tools and components.
A unit of pressure equal to one million pascals.
In the metric or SI system, the number of millimeters that a pneumatic component such as a linear actuator travels in one second. Millimeters per second is abbreviated mm/s.
In the metric system, the unit used to measure power and torque. The Newton-meter is abbreviated as N-m.
A unit of pressure. A newton per square meter is also known as a pascal, which is derived from the International System of Units (SI).
Any unwanted sound. Noise at high decibels is a hearing hazard.
A pneumatic system that draws air from the surrounding environment, compresses and uses it to perform work, and then vents it back into the atmosphere.
A pneumatic power variable that describes how much air is being moved and how much work is being performed. Output, or flow rate, is usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (lpm).
The point at which horsepower and torque are highest. As speeds increase after the peak values, horsepower and torque decrease.
Power derived from the motion and pressure of a gas, such as air.
A characteristic of a pneumatic system or component that can be measured and quantified.
A type of compressor that moves a fixed amount of air during each cycle.
A unit of pressure. Pounds per square inch is abbreviated psi.
The rate of doing work in a specified period of time.
The amount of force applied upon an object. Pressure is calculated by dividing force by an area.
An indication of the amount of pressure a fluid conductor can withstand.
The component of a pneumatic system that powers the compressor.
The amount of work that can be accomplished in a given time period.
A component that stores compressed gas and helps stockpile a constant supply of pressurized gas.
The time it takes for a compressor to replace the pressure in a receiver during operation.
A unit of measurement that indicates the number of revolutions a pneumatic component makes in one minute. Revolutions per minute is abbreviated rpm.
Motion that takes place around a point. Rotary motion is circular.
A figure that establishes the relationship between the burst pressure and working pressure. A component with a safety ratio of 4-to-1 will likely fail if the operating pressure reaches a level 4 times the normal level.
An organization of engineers that sets industry standards concerning the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas resources.
The amount of distance an object travels in a given period of time. Speed is used to measure both linear and rotational movement.
A measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute under standard conditions of temperature, pressure, and humidity. Standard cubic feet per minute is abbreviated scfm.
A standard set of conditions for measurement. STP is set by industry standards authorities and allows uniform comparisons between sets of data.
The type of flow in a fluid system characterized by the presence of laminae, or parallel streams of fluid. Also called laminar flow, streamline flow is desirable because of its efficiency.
An indication of the displacement of a pneumatic component that is equal to the volume of the component actually covered by a rotor or piston.
The amount of pressure at the output end of a compressor or receiver. System delivery pressure is used to specify the capability of compressors and is also known as the system working pressure.
The amount of pressure nearest the point of performing work at the output end of a pneumatic system. The system operating pressure is used to specify the capabilty of valves and actuators.
The amount of pressure at the output end of a compressor or receiver. System working pressure is used to specify the capability of compressors and is also known as the system delivery pressure.
The amount of power a pneumatic power system is expected to deliver.
The flow rate that a pneumatic power system is expected to deliver.
The force exerted in rotation.
The type of flow in a fluid system characterized by fluid moving in a random and chaotic manner. Turbulent flow is not desirable.
A mechanism that controls the flow of compressed air in a pneumatic power system. Valves direct air movement and regulate the amount of pressure in a pneumatic system.
A pneumatic compressor that consists of a rotor mounted off-center in a circular cavity. As the rotor spins, vanes trap and compress air.
A pneumatic power variable that describes both the quantity of gas and the capacity of a component.
A unit used to measure power. 746 watts is equal to one horsepower.
The result of force applied to an object over a distance.
The pressure rating that indicates the maximum pressure a conductor should experience in service. Working pressure is often called maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP).