What is the definition of "universal motor"?
A type of electric motor often used for hydraulic applications where the power source may be interrupted. Universal motors run on both DC and single-phase AC power and produce more noise and vibration than induction motors.

Learn more about universal motor in the class Hydraulic Power Sources 210 below.


Hydraulics and Pneumatics Training


Class Information
Tooling U classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Hydraulic Power Sources 210
Description:This class discusses the various types of hydraulic pumps and how they create fluid flow. It also describes prime movers and the considerations for selecting a pump and motor unit for a specific application.
Prerequisites: 570105  570110  570120 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:14
Language:English, Spanish

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Below are all the competencies and job programs that contain the class Hydraulic Power Sources 210. Job programs are our traditional class lists organized according to common job functions. Competencies are our latest job-specific curricula that help tie online learning to practical, hands-on tasks.

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Competencies


Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Intro to Hydraulic Power Sources
  • Hydraulic Horsepower Generation
  • Fluid Displacement
  • Pump Efficiency
  • Positive-Displacement Pumps
  • Gear Pumps
  • Vane Pumps
  • Piston Pumps
  • Pump Selection
  • Hydraulic Intensifiers
  • Prime Mover Selection: Electric Motors
  • Prime Mover Selection: Other Types
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe how a hydraulic system transmits power.
  • Describe how a pump generates hydraulic horsepower.
  • Define fluid displacement.
  • Describe factors that affect pump efficiency.
  • Identify types of positive-displacement pumps.
  • Describe gear pumps.
  • Describe vane pumps.
  • Distinguish between types of piston pumps.
  • Identify factors involved in pump selection.
  • Describe features of a hydraulic intensifier.
  • Describe electric motors.
  • Describe common prime movers.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
actual flow rate The flow rate that a pump delivers during operation. Volumetric efficiency compares the theoretical flow rate with the actual flow rate.
actual operating horsepower The amount of horsepower a hydraulic component delivers during operation. When compared to the theoretical operating horsepower, actual operating horsepower describes mechanical efficiency.
actuator A component that directly helps convert hydraulic or pneumatic energy into mechanical energy.
atmospheric pressure The weight of the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure refers to the amount of pressure exerted by the air.
axial-piston pump A type of piston pump that uses contact between a swash plate and rotating pistons to convert rotary motion to linear motion.
balanced vane pump A hydraulic pump that consists of a rotor mounted in the center of an elliptical cavity. As the rotor spins, vanes trap and move hydraulic fluid.
bent-axis piston pump A type of piston pump containing pistons mounted at an angle to a drive shaft, which rotates the pistons. A bent-axis piston pump does not contain a swash plate.
booster A hydraulic component that converts low pressure from a large linear actuator into high pressure in a small linear actuator. Also called intensifiers, boosters are usually two different-sized cylinders connected by a common piston.
cam A circular component of a piston pump that is mounted off-center and moves pistons when rotated.
crescent pump A gear-within-gear pump that consists of an inner gear that is separated from the outer gear by a crescent-shaped component that provides both support and a seal.
cubic centimeters per revolution A metric unit of measurement that describes the displacement of a hydraulic component.
cubic inches per revolution An English unit of measurement that describes the displacement of a hydraulic component.
cycle One complete revolution or rotation of a rotary hydraulic component, or one complete extension and retraction of a linear hydraulic component.
diesel engine A type of internal combustion engine that is often used as a prime mover for mobile hydraulic applications.
displacement A hydraulic power variable that indicates how much fluid is moved by a hydraulic pump in one cycle. Displacement is measured in cubic inches per revolution or cubic centimeters per revolution.
drive gear In a gear pump, the gear that receives energy from the driving mechanism. A drive gear transmits power to a meshing driven gear to perform work and move fluid.
drive shaft In a piston pump, the device that transfers motion to the pistons.
driven gear The gear in a gear pump that is rotated by the drive gear.
driving mechanism The component of a gear pump that rotates the driving gear.
efficiency The amount of power output by a fluid power system compared to the amount of power input.
electric motor A machine that converts electricity into mechanical energy or motion. An electric motor is a type of prime mover for a hydraulic system.
fixed-displacement pump A hydraulic pump that cannot be adjusted to increase or decrease the amount of liquid that is moved in one pump cycle. Fixed-displacement pumps are often used in applications with low hydraulic horsepower ratings.
flow capacity A hydraulic power variable that describes how much fluid is being moved and how much work is being performed. Flow capacity, or flow rate, is usually measured in gallons per minute (gpm) or liters per minute (lpm).
fluid flow The volume of fluid displaced by a pump or compressor into a hydraulic or pneumatic system.
fluid flow rate The volume of fluid displaced within a given time. Fluid flow rate also determines the speed at which work is performed by fluid power systems.
gallons per minute A unit of measurement that indicates the flow capabilities of a hydraulic component. Gallons per minute is abbreviated gpm.
gear A disc or wheel that contains evenly spaced teeth around its perimeter. Gears are usually used in pairs to transmit energy and motion.
gear pump A hydraulic pump that uses meshing gears that rotate and move liquid through a hydraulic system. Gear pumps are relatively inexpensive and are compact in size.
gear-on-gear pump A hydraulic pump that creates pressure in a hydraulic system through the interaction of two toothed gears that mesh with one another. One gear rotates and drives the other gear.
gear-within-gear pump A hydraulic pump that creates pressure in a hydraulic system through the interaction of two toothed gears that are located one inside of the other. A gear with external teeth rotates and drives the gear with internal teeth.
gerotor A gear-within-gear pump that consists of an inner gear with one less tooth than the outer gear.
helical gear A type of gear with slanted teeth. Helical gears are quieter than spur gears and can also be used in gear pumps.
hydraulic energy Power created by the compressive force or movement of a liquid in a confined area. Machines that lift objects often use hydraulic energy.
hydraulic fluid A liquid such as oil or water that is used to generate power in a hydraulic system.
hydraulic horsepower A hydraulic variable that describes the power provided by a hydraulic system. HHP is directly proportional to flow rate and pressure and inversely proportional to the efficiency of a system.
hydraulic intensifier A hydraulic component that converts low pressure from a large linear actuator into high pressure in a small linear actuator. Also called boosters, intensifiers are usually two different-sized cylinders connected by a common piston.
hydraulic pump A mechanical device used to move liquids. The hydraulic pump introduces pressure into the system.
induction motor A type of electric motor often used for high-duty hydraulic applications. Induction motors can operate for long time periods but require an uninterrupted power source.
inlet port The opening on the side of a pump through which fluid is drawn into the pump.
kilopascal A unit used to measure pressure in the SI system, abbreviated as kPa.
leakage The unintended movement of fluid either out of a fluid system or from one fluid component to another. Leakage causes a loss of effiency and often leads to system failure.
linear motion Motion that takes place in a straight line rather than in a circle around an axis.
maximum output pressure A specification for hydraulic intensifiers, measured in psi, that describes how much pressure the intensifier can exert.
mechanical efficiency The theoretical operating horsepower compared to the operating horsepower. Mechanical horsepower describes the amount of energy loss in a hydraulic component.
outlet port The opening on the side of a pump through which fluid is expelled into the hydraulic system.
overall efficiency A variable that describes all energy losses in a hydraulic system. Overall efficiency is determined by multiplying volumetric efficiency by mechanical efficiency and dividing by 100.
piston barrel A rotating cylindrical mechanism that houses the pistons in a piston pump.
piston pump A hydraulic pump that uses pistons driven by a rotating swash plate or cam to move fluid through a hydraulic system. Piston pumps are highly efficient, but are also costly.
piston shoe The swiveling end portion of a piston that maintains contact with the swash plate in a piston pump.
positive-displacement pump A hydraulic pump that continues to discharge fluid as long as it is powered.
pounds per square inch A measurement of pressure. Pounds per square inch is abbreviated psi.
pressure The exertion of force upon a fluid.
pressure intensification factor A specification for hydraulic intensifiers that indicates how much a hydraulic intensifier can increase the pressure in a hydraulic system.
prime mover The component that powers the main pump via mechanical energy. Electric motors and diesel engines are common prime movers for hydraulic systems.
productivity rate The amount of work that can be accomplished in a given time period.
radial-piston pump A type of piston pump containing a cam attached to the drive shaft. The cam rotates with the drive shaft, causing the piston to move in a linear direction.
reciprocating motion Movement characterized by repeatable back-and-forth action.
relief valve A non-adjustable control valve that regulates pressure in a hydraulic system. When a critical pressure is exceeded, the relief valve releases.
rotary motion Spinning or turning motion that takes place around an axis, without a change in linear position.
speed The rate at which an object travels. Speed is calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time elapsed.
spur gear A type of gear that has straight, flat-topped teeth set parallel to the shaft. Spur gears are often used in gear pumps.
swash plate A flat, angled component of a piston pump that is fixed in place and moves the pistons when the piston barrel rotates.
theoretical flow rate The flow rate that a pump is rated to deliver during operation. Volumetric efficiency compares the theoretical flow rate with the actual flow rate.
theoretical operating horsepower The amount of horsepower a hydraulic component is capable of delivering. When compared to the actual operating horsepower, theoretical operating horsepower can describe mechanical efficiency.
throttle A control used to vary the speed of a mechanical device such as an engine.
unbalanced vane pump A hydraulic pump that consists of a rotor mounted off-center in a circular cavity. As the rotor spins, vanes trap and move hydraulic fluid.
universal motor A type of electric motor often used for hydraulic applications where the power source may be interrupted. Universal motors run on both DC and single-phase AC power and produce more noise and vibration than induction motors.
vane A retractable spring-loaded mechanism that extends radially from the center of a pump rotor. Vanes trap and move fluid to an outlet port.
vane pump A hydraulic pump that uses a series of flat protrusions that rotate to trap and move liquid through a hydraulic system. Vane pumps are efficient at high speeds of operation.
variable-displacement pump A hydraulic pump that can be adjusted to increase or decrease the amount of liquid that is moved in one pump cycle. Variable-displacement pumps are generally more expensive than fixed-displacement pumps.
volumetric efficiency The theoretical flow rate compared to the actual flow rate. Volumetric efficiency describes the amount of leakage, or losses in volume, in a hydraulic component.
work The result of force applied to an object over a distance.