What is the definition of "joint fit-up"?
The alignment of the base metal components prior to welding. SAW requires the tightest and best joint fit-up for quality welds.

Learn more about joint fit-up in the class Intro to Submerged Arc Welding 160 below.


Welding Training


Class Information
Tooling U classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Intro to Submerged Arc Welding 160
Description:This class describes the submerged arc welding process as well as its advantages and limitations.
Prerequisites: 650110  650120  650140 
Difficulty:Beginner
Number of Lessons:14
Language:English, Spanish

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Below are all the competencies and job programs that contain the class Intro to Submerged Arc Welding 160. Job programs are our traditional class lists organized according to common job functions. Competencies are our latest job-specific curricula that help tie online learning to practical, hands-on tasks.

Click on any title to view its details.


Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Submerged Arc Welding
  • SAW Limitations
  • SAW Advantages
  • The SAW Process
  • Modes of SAW
  • SAW Equipment
  • Consumables for SAW
  • SAW Fluxes
  • Inverter Technology
  • SAW Startup and Installation
  • Safety for SAW Applications
  • Common SAW Applications
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe SAW.
  • Describe the limitations of SAW.
  • Describe the advantages of SAW.
  • Describe the SAW process.
  • Define SAW modes.
  • Identify SAW equipment and components.
  • Describe SAW consumables.
  • Describe SAW flux.
  • Describe inverter technology for SAW.
  • Explain SAW startup and installation.
  • Describe SAW safety considerations.
  • Describe common SAW applications.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
AC Also known as alternating current, a current which reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals of time. SAW machines can run on AC.
active flux A flux that contains small amounts of deoxidizers to provide improved resistance to porosity and cracking.
alloy flux A flux that can be used with a plain carbon steel electrode to make an alloy weld deposit.
alternating current Also known as AC, a current which reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals of time. SAW machines can run on alternating current.
American Welding Society The non-profit organization that regulates the industrial standards for welding and promotes the welding industry in the United States.
arc The area in which electricity jumps from the electrode to the workpiece. The heat generated by the arc melts the base metals and filler metal during welding.
arc radiation The intense emission of ultraviolet and infrared rays that can burn eyes and skin.
arc welding A welding process that uses the heat generated from electricity to melt filler metal and base metals to form an airtight weld.
automatic submerged arc welding A mode of SAW in which a tracking device follows the weld joint, and a flux delivery system self-supplies additional flux. Automatic SAW is used rarely in manufacturing but requires only minimal supervision by a welder.
CC power source An arc welding power source with a volt-ampere relationship yielding a small welding current change from a large arc voltage change.
circuit A completely enclosed path consisting of various devices that contains an electrical current. In SAW, a circuit is also known as a welding circuit.
constant current Welding using a current that varies slightly with changes in voltage. Abbreviated as CC, constant current can be used in submerged arc welding.
constant voltage Welding using a voltage that varies slightly with changes in current, or amperage. Abbreviated as CV, constant voltage can be used in submerged arc welding.
constant-speed wire feeder A device designed to feed wire electrodes to welding guns or welding heads at a constant speed.
consumable Any material that is used up during the SAW process. Electrodes and fluxes are the two main consumables, though the contact tip will also wear and require replacement.
contact nozzle A device attached to a welding gun or welding head that transfers electrical energy from the power source to the electrode.
CV power source An arc welding power source with a volt-ampere relationship yielding a large welding current change from a small arc voltage change.
DC Also known as direct current, a current formed when electrons flow in one continuous direction. SAW machines can run on DC.
DC electrode negative The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the negative pole and the workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc.
DC electrode positive The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the positive pole and the workpiece is the negative pole of the welding arc.
DC negative Direct current with straight polarity. It is often expressed as DCEN.
DC positive Direct current with reverse polarity. It is often expressed as DCEP.
direct current Also known as DC, a current formed when electrons flow in one continuous direction. SAW machines can run on direct current.
electrode A device in an electrical circuit that conducts electricity. In SAW, the electrode also acts as the filler metal.
fast fill ability The ability to deposit large amounts of filler metal in a relatively short period of time.
feedback Information sent back into the control system that allows actual performance to be compared to planned performance. Inverter technology works better than older technologies for SAW because the inverter has improved feedback.
flux A granular material used to protect the weld puddle from atmospheric contamination. In SAW, flux covers the electric arc, performs a slagging function to clean the weld, and insulates the weld puddle to control the cooling rate.
flux delivery system A pressurized unit that stores flux and dispenses it to the SAW process.
flux hopper Also known as a flux tank, a tank that stores and dispenses flux to the welding process.
flux recovery system A portable or stationary vacuum unit used in SAW to collect used flux material. Not all SAW operations use a flux recovery system.
flux tank Also known as a flux hopper, a tank that stores and dispenses flux to the welding process. A flux tank is also known as a flux hopper.
flux-cored arc welding Also known as FCAW, an arc welding process that uses a continuously fed consumable electrode that contains flux at its core.
gas metal arc welding Also known as GMAW or MIG welding, an arc welding process in which a bare wire electrode and inert or active shielding gas are fed to the weld through a welding gun.
GMAW Also known as gas metal arc welding, an arc welding process in which a bare wire electrode and inert or active shielding gas are fed to a weld through a welding gun.
hardfacing A metalworking process in which a harder or tougher material, especially chrome, is applied to base metals. Also known as hardsurfacing, hardfacing is a surfacing operation that adds a wear resistant layer to a part.
hydrocarbon A chemical compound containing only hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons contaminate SAW fluxes.
inverter technology An energy-efficient welding machine that runs in CC and CV modes with variable frequencies, amplitudes, and AC/DC output. Inverter technology provides feedback on the welding parameters, so that the machine knows how much current is in the welding circuit at any one given time.
joint fit-up The alignment of the base metal components prior to welding. SAW requires the tightest and best joint fit-up for quality welds.
machine welding Also known as mechanical submerged arc welding, a mode of SAW that requires moderate supervision by a welder, who monitors the process and the flux while a manual tracking device keeps the electrode in the correct position. Also known as mechanized submerged arc welding, machine welding is the most widely used SAW process.
manipulator A mechanical device that moves and positions a welding head and control inside the joint of a weld but not along the joint. A manipulator contols the angle at which a submerged arc weld is performed.
manual submerged arc welding Also known as semi-automatic submerged arc welding, a mode of SAW that requires the most supervision by a welder, who welds with a hand-held welding gun. Manual SAW is almost never used.
manual tracking A mechanical device that moves an electrode in the correct position along the weld joint. Manual tracking is also known as a welding tractor.
Material Safety and Data Sheet Mandatory information that must accompany almost every substance in the workplace except for items like cleaning supplies. Abbreviated as MSDS, a sheet includes details such as the risks, precautions, and first aid procedures associated with the substance.
mechanized submerged arc welding Also known as machine welding, a mode of SAW that requires moderate supervision by a welder, who monitors the process and the flux while a manual tracking device keeps the electrode in the correct position. Mechanized SAW is the most widely used SAW process.
MIG welding Also known as gas metal arc welding, an arc welding process in which a bare wire electrode and inert or active shielding gas are fed to the weld through a welding gun.
neutral flux A flux that will not produce any significant change in the all-weld metal composition when the arc voltage changes drastically.
open arc welding A group of arc welding processes characterized by an exposed arc. SMAW, GMAW, GTAW and FCAW are all open arc welding processes.
operating factor The amount of arc measured over time. Welders with high operating factors can deposit more filler metal in a joint in less time.
reactor A device used in an electrical circuit that stabilizes and adjusts a low voltage current into a high amperage current.
rectifier A device used in an electrical circuit that converts AC into DC.
SAW An arc welding process that joins two components by melting a consumable electrode and flux materials with an electric arc underneath a blanket of flux material. Also known as submerged arc welding and subarc, SAW is distinct from other arc welding processes because the arc is not exposed.
semi-automatic submerged arc welding Also known as manual submerged arc welding, a mode of SAW that requires the most supervision by a welder, who welds with a hand-held welding gun. Semi-automatic SAW is almost never used.
shielded metal arc welding Also known as SMAW or stick welding, an arc welding process that uses a flux-coated consumable electrode.
slag Cooled flux that forms on top of the weld bead. Slag protects cooling metal and is then chipped off.
slagging function The formation of slag from flux material, during which the flux cleans the weld puddle. The more time a weld puddle has to perform the slagging function, the greater the chance for gases to escape from the puddle.
SMAW Also known as shielded metal arc welding, a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable flux-coated electrode.
smooth DC A direct current that has a small variation or "ripple." Smooth DC is ideal for welding circuits.
subarc Also known as submerged arc welding and SAW, a shortened term for submerged arc welding. Subarc is an arc welding process that joins two components by melting a consumable electrode and flux with an electric arc underneath a blanket of flux material.
submerged arc welding Also known as subarc or SAW, an arc welding process that joins two components by melting a consumable electrode and flux with an electric arc underneath a blanket of flux material. Submerged arc welding is distinct from other arc welding processes because the arc is not exposed.
transformer A device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another, without changing the frequency, using electromagnetic induction. A transformer is most often used to change the voltage of an input.
transformer effect An occurrence in which a changing current in one electrical cable creates a changing magnetic field that induces either a current in another cable or a new current that moves in the oppostive direction to the original current in the original cable. Also known as mutual induction, the transformer effect is an electric shock hazard and steals energy from the welding circuit.
travel carriage Also known as a welding tractor, a motor-driven and wheeled vehicle used for moving a welding head and control along the joint of a weld.
travel unit A mechanical device used in SAW to move another component or piece of equipment, such as a welding gun.
welder Either the person who performs a weld or the power source that provides the electricity needed to perform an arc weld. Printed materials may use both meanings of the term.
welding gun An instrument used in SAW that conducts electricity and guides one or more electrodes.
welding head The combination of a motor, gear box, and contact nozzle that is usually mounted to a SAW machine. A welding head performs the same function as a welding gun, but the welding gun is portable.
welding tractor Also known as a travel carriage, a motor-driven and wheeled vehicle used for moving a welding head and control along the joint of a weld.
wire drive A mechanical device that provides motion in order to continuously feed a wire electrode. SAW uses wire drives to add more electrode material for filler metal as the weld progresses.