Welding Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:SMAW Applications 210
Description:This class describes the SMAW process and the variables that affect electrode selection, electrical variables, and methods for starting and extinguishing the arc. Includes an Interactive Lab.
Prerequisites: 650110  650115  650130  650140 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:18
Language:English, Spanish, Chinese
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is SMAW?
  • Pros and Cons of SMAW
  • Metals Welded with SMAW
  • SMAW Electrical Components
  • SMAW Electrode Materials
  • Types of SMAW Electrodes
  • SMAW Electrode Classification
  • DC or AC Selection
  • Amperage
  • Voltage
  • SMAW Joint Preparation
  • Starting the Arc
  • Breaking and Re-Starting the Arc
  • SMAW Electrode Orientation
  • SMAW Travel Speed
  • Running a SMAW Bead
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Define SMAW.
  • Distinguish SMAW from other welding processes.
  • Contrast common metals welded with SMAW.
  • Explain characteristics of common SMAW electrical components.
  • Identify common SMAW electrode materials.
  • Distinguish between the types of SMAW electrodes.
  • Explain how electrodes are classified.
  • Distinguish between using AC and DC for SMAW.
  • Describe the factors that affect amperage selection for SMAW.
  • Describe the factors that affect voltage for SMAW.
  • Describe common methods for preparing a joint for SMAW.
  • Explain techniques for starting the arc with SMAW.
  • Explain common techniques for breaking and re-starting the arc with SMAW.
  • Distinguish between the methods of electrode orientation.
  • Explain the effects of travel speed on the SMAW process.
  • Explain how to run a weld bead.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
alloy A metal consisting of a mixture of two or more materials. One of these materials must be a metal.
alternating current Current that regularly reverses the direction of its flow. It is best to use AC for SMAW when welding larger workpieces with larger electrodes.
aluminum A silvery white metal that is soft, light, and an effective conductor.
amperage The amount of current flowing in a circuit. SMAW uses 10 to 500 amps.
arc blow A condition that occurs when the arc does not follow its intended path from the electrode to the workpiece. Arc blow can cause undesirable weld beads.
arc length The distance from the electrode to the workpiece in an arc welding application.
arc voltage The amount of voltage present between the electrode and the workpiece. For SMAW, arc voltage ranges from 17 to 45 volts.
backhand technique Moving the electrode along the workpiece opposite the direction of welding.
calcium A nonmetallic material that is often present in the powdered coating of a SMAW electrode. Calcium floats to the top of the molten weld puddle and forms slag.
carbon A common, nonmetallic element found in all types of steel. Carbon is the main hardening element in steel.
cast iron A metal consisting of iron, over 2.11% carbon, and 1 to 3% silicon. Cast irons normally contain trace amounts of other elements.
chipping hammer The hammer used to scrape slag from a cooled weld bead. The chipping hammer is also sometimes called a scaling hammer.
circuit A controlled path in which electricity can flow. SMAW, like all arc welding processes, requires a closed circuit.
conductor A material that allows for the easy flow of electricity. The components in the SMAW circuit must be good conductors.
constant current Welding using a current that varies slightly with changes in voltage. SMAW applications use constant current welders.
consumable electrode An electrode that conducts electricity to the arc but also melts into the weld as a filler metal. SMAW consumable electrodes also provide shielding that protects the arc and weld puddle.
cracking Cracks in the weld bead or base metal. Cracking can be the result of using excessive amperage with larger electrodes.
crater A recess in the weld bead. A crater can cause cracking if it is not properly filled.
deoxidizer A material that removes oxygen from the molten weld puddle and arc. Deoxidizers prevent oxygen from ruining a weld bead.
deposition rate The rate at which an electrode melts into the molten weld puddle to form a weld.
direct current A current formed when electrons flow in one continuous direction. DC used during SMAW sometimes can cause arc blow.
directly proportional A constant ratio between two values. If value A increases, value B also increases. If value A decreases then value B also decreases.
drag angle A term used in industry for the backhand technique.
electrode A device that conducts electricity to the welding circuit. SMAW electrodes conduct electricity, serve as the filler metal, and provide shielding for the arc and weld puddle.
electrode axis A line through the length of the electrode, perpendicular to and at the geometric center of its cross section.
electrode cable The path used in welding to conduct electricity from the welder to the electrode. Electrode and work cables are connected to the welder, the workpiece, and electrode, which provides a closed electrical circuit.
electrode diameter A measurement of the thickness of the electrode. Larger electrodes can improve productivity.
electrode holder The insulated handle that clamps onto the electrode. The welder holds this device during welding to control the arc.
electrode orientation The way in which a welder manipulates the electrode. Electrode orientation refers to the work angle and the travel angle.
fast-fill electrode A SMAW electrode that fills up a joint quickly. Fast-fill electrodes are ideal for large workpieces.
fast-freeze electrode A SMAW electrode that solidifies quickly. Fast-freeze electrodes are ideal for overhead welding.
ferrous metal A metal that contains iron. Steel is the most common ferrous metal. SMAW is most commonly used to weld ferrous metals.
filler metal A type of metal with similar properties to the base metal that is added to the SMAW weld. Filler metal often adds to the strength and mass of the welded joint.
fillet joint A type of weld that is triangular in shape and joins two surfaces at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint. Fillet welds are the most common types of welds.
fill-freeze electrode A SMAW electrode that has both fast-fill and fast-freeze characteristics. Fill-freeze electrodes fill up a joint quickly as well as solidify quickly.
flux A non-metallic material provided by the SMAW electrode, which protects the weld puddle and cooling metal from atmospheric contamination.
forehand technique Moving the electrode along the workpiece in the direction of welding.
gas metal arc welding An arc welding process in which the bare wire electrode and inert shielding gas are fed to the weld through a welding gun. It is also referred to as GMAW or MIG welding.
gas shielding A layer of inert or slightly reactive gas provided by the electrode. Shielding gas protects the weld puddle and arc from atmospheric contamination.
gas tungsten arc welding A very precise arc welding process that uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode. It is also referred to as GTAW or TIG welding.
low-carbon steel A steel that contains less than 0.30% carbon. Low-carbon steel is also referred to as mild steel.
low-hydrogen electrode A SMAW electrode that is used to weld restricted materials that can be susceptible to cracking.
manganese A hard, brittle, gray-white metal that increases the hardenability of steel. Manganese also increases strength and hardness.
multiple weld pass A weld that is formed by two or more passes, one over the other.
nickel A silvery white metal that is fairly hard and malleable, with properties similar to iron and steel.
nonferrous metal A metal that does not contain iron. Aluminum and copper are common nonferrous metals.
porosity The trapping of hydrogen in a weld bead. Usually, porosity cannot be seen. However, excessive porosity can weaken a weld.
push angle A term used in industry for the forehand technique.
run-off tab A scrap piece of base metal with the same groove as the workpiece. Run-off tabs are tacked onto the end of the workpiece to allow the welder to extinguish the arc without forming a crater on the workpiece.
scratching A method of striking the arc in which the welder guides the electrode across the workpiece at an angle. The scratching method closely resembles striking a match.
shielded metal arc welding An arc welding process that uses a flux-coated consumable rod electrode. It is also referred to as SMAW or stick welding.
shielding A layer of inert or slightly reactive gas that protects the weld puddle and arc from atmospheric contamination.
silicon A nonmetallic material that is often present in the powdered coating of a SMAW electrode. Silicon acts as a deoxidizer.
single weld pass A weld that is formed using only one pass.
slag Cooled flux that forms on top of the bead. Slag protects cooling metal and is then chipped off.
SMAW Shielded metal arc welding. SMAW is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable flux-coated electrode.
spatter Liquid metal droplets expelled from the welding process. The amount of spatter that a SMAW process yields often depends on the electrode selected and welder skill.
square groove joint A type of weld that consists of an opening between two square part surfaces, which provides space to contain weld metal.
steel A metal consisting of iron and carbon, usually with small amounts of other elements. SMAW is often used to weld different types of steel.
stick welding Shielded metal arc welding. In industry, many welders refer to shielded metal arc welding as stick welding.
stringer bead A type of weld bead formed by moving the electrode straight across the joint. A good stringer bead looks like a roll of dimes.
tapping A method of striking the arc in which the welder moves the electrode downward to the base metal in a vertical direction.
tensile strength The ability of a metal to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it.
travel angle The angle less than 90 degrees between the electrode and the weld.
travel speed The speed at which the welder moves the electrode along the joint to make a weld.
undercut A gap left in a finished weld that should have been filled with weld metal. Undercut is unsightly but does not necessarily indicate a bad weld.
voltage The electrical force or pressure that causes current to flow in a circuit. SMAW uses 17 to 45 volts.
weave bead A weld bead formed by moving the electrode along the joint in a weaving motion.
weld axis A line through the length of the weld, perpendicular to and at the geometric center of its cross section.
weld backing A strip of metal located on the side opposite of the weld that provides a surface for depositing the first layer of metal to prevent molten metal from escaping through the joint. Weld backing is used for complete penetration welds.
weld bead The end product of a joint that has been welded.
weld pass One progression of welding across a joint. The result of a weld pass is a weld bead.
weld puddle The small area of molten metal that forms during welding. The cooled weld puddle forms the permanent joint. A weld puddle is also called a weld pool, molten pool, or molten puddle.
weld root The point at which the back of the weld intersects the base metal surfaces.
weld toe The point at which the weld face and the base metal meet.
weldability The ability of a material to be welded under imposed conditions into a specific, suitable structure and to perform satisfactory for its intended use.
whip technique A technique typically used for forming a stringer bead that involves moving the electrode around in a circle and withdrawing it slightly, then repeating this technique to form a bead.
work angle The angle less than 90 degrees between a line perpendicular to the workpiece and a plane determined by the electrode axis and the weld axis. The work angle is used to center the weld bead on a given application.
work cable The path used in welding to conduct electricity from the welder to the work clamp. Electrode and work cables are connected to the welder, the workpiece, and electrode, which provides a closed electrical circuit.
work clamp The component that, along with the electrode, can come in direct contact with the workpiece during welding. The work clamp is connected to the welder with the work cable and provides ground for the SMAW circuit.