What is the definition of "tensile strength"?
The ability of a metal to resist forces that attempt to pull it apart or stretch it.

Learn more about tensile strength in the class Arc Welding Symbols and Codes 250 below.


Welding Training


Class Information
Welding Training Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Arc Welding Symbols and Codes 250
Description:This class describes welding symbols and how to read them. It also explains the importance of welding codes and the procedures involved for a welding application.
Prerequisites: 650110  650115  650120  650130 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:15
Language:English, Spanish, Chinese
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is the Welding Symbol?
  • Parts of the Welding Symbol
  • The Reference Line
  • The Weld Symbol
  • Types of Weld Symbols
  • Supplementary Symbols
  • Weld Size Characteristics
  • What Is a Welding Code?
  • Welding Code Sources
  • Welding Procedure Specification
  • Welding Procedure Qualification Record
  • Welding Performance Qualification Test
  • Types of Weld Tests
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Define welding symbol.
  • Identify elements of the welding symbol.
  • Define the reference line.
  • Describe the weld symbol.
  • List different types of weld symbols.
  • Identify different types of supplementary symbols.
  • Describe the characteristics of weld size.
  • Define welding code.
  • Describe common sources for welding codes.
  • Describe the purpose of the welding procedure specification.
  • Describe the purpose of the welding procedure qualification record.
  • Describe the purpose of the welding performance qualification test.
  • List common types of weld tests.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
American Institute of Steel Construction The non-profit organization that regulates the industrial standards for the structural steel design and construction industries. If welding involves steel construction, designers use AISC codes.
American Petroleum Institute The non-profit organization that regulates the industrial standards for the oil and natural gas industry. If welding involves oil pipelines or related materials, designers use API codes.
American Welding Society The non-profit organization that regulates the industrial standards for welding and promotes the welding industry in the United States.
arrow element The arrow which extends from either end of the reference line and points to a diagram of the intended welded joint.
arrow side The part of the welding symbol that is below the reference line. Instructions that appear on the arrow side of the welding symbol correspond with the arrow side of the base metal to be welded.
AWS Structural Codes A set of American Welding Society codes that govern welding structures such as buildings and bridges. If welding involves structural construction, designers use AWS structural codes.
bending jig A device used for weld testing that bends weld test specimens to test their quality.
blueprint A document containing all the instructions necessary for making a project. A blueprint with instructions for welding contains one or more welding symbols.
butt joint A type of joint between two metal parts that lie in the same plane. A butt joint is the most common joint type.
certification The process by which a welder earns permission to weld with specific variables.
chain-intermittent weld A type of intermittent weld that requires a sequence of welds on each side of the joint that line up evenly with each other.
code A collection of laws or standards that outline practices for a particular application. Welding codes ensure safe welding practices and high-quality welded products.
concavity Curving inward like the inside of a bowl. Many fillet welds have concave faces.
consumable insert A type of filler material added to the welded joint. Consumable inserts often add strength to the welded joint.
contour symbol A supplementary symbol that tells the welder the shape of the finished weld bead.
contract An agreement, usually in writing, between two or more parties. A welding contract outlines all of the specific requirements and codes for a particular welding application.
convexity Curving outward like the exterior part of a circle. Many fillet welds have convex faces.
corner joint A type of joint between two metal parts located at right angles to one another. Corner joints require large amounts of weld metal.
cross-section The interior part of a weld. The cross-section is often subject to weld testing and inspection to ensure weld quality.
ductility A metal's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without breaking.
edge joint A type of joint in which the surface of the two metal parts to be joined are parallel to one another, and the weld is made at their common edges.
essential variable A variable used in the welding process that, if changed, will affect the mechanical properties of the finished weld.
field weld symbol A supplementary symbol that instructs the welder to perform a weld on a job site, not in the welding shop.
fillet weld A type of weld that is triangular in shape and joins two surfaces at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint, or corner joint. Fillet welds are the most common types of welds.
fillet weld performance test A weld test performed on fillet welds that places a fillet weld test specimen onto a load and bends it flat onto itself so that it can be inspected for defects.
fillet weld procedure test A visual weld test performed on the weld and heat-affected zone of fillet welds.
finish symbol A symbol that appears within the welding symbol that tells the welder how to complete the finished welded joint. Finish symbols indicate the need for processes like grinding, power brushing, or machining.
grinding A means of finishing a weld by using an abrasive.
groove An opening between two parts that can contain a weld.
groove angle The angle of the groove between the two workpieces that are welded together.
groove weld A weld placed in an opening between two parts. There are eight groove weld symbols that represent different groove weld shapes.
guided-face and root-bend test A weld test used for thinner base metals that places a weld test specimen into a jig and bends it 180°. The weld test specimen must not break and must not have defects beyond those specified by the code.
guided-side bend test A weld test used for thicker base metals that places a weld test specimen into a jig and bends it 180°. The weld test specimen must not break and must not have defects beyond those specified by the code.
heat-affected zone The portion of the base metal that has not been melted, but its mechanical properties have been altered by the heat of welding.
intermittent welding Welding that does not require one continuous weld along the length of the entire joint. Intermittent welds are shorter welds, spaced evenly along the joint.
J-groove weld A type of groove weld with an opening in the shape of the letter "J." The edge of one metal part is concave, and the other is square.
joint The meeting point of two materials that are joined together. Welding creates a permanent joint.
lap joint A type of joint between two overlapping metal parts in parallel planes.
load A machine that places a large amount of pressure and weight onto a device. Weld test specimens are placed on a load and bent so they can be inspected for defects.
mechanical properties The properties that describe a material's ability to compress, stretch, bend, scratch, dent, or break.
melt-through symbol A supplementary symbol that tells the welder that complete joint penetration is necessary on one side of the joint.
multiple reference lines The use of two or more reference lines. Multiple reference lines are used when a joint requires a sequence of operations.
nonessential variable A variable used in the welding process that, if changed, will not affect the mechanical properties of the finished weld.
other side The part of the welding symbol that is above the reference line, opposite the arrow side. Instructions that appear on the other side of the welding symbol correspond with the other side of the base metal to be welded.
physical inspection An inspection in which an inspector takes measurements of a part. A physical inspection of a weld involves measuring the weld length and size.
pitch The distance from the center of one intermittent weld bead to the center of the next intermittent weld bead.
plug weld A type of weld made by joining one metal part with a circular hole to another metal part positioned directly beneath it.
post heating The application of heat to the weld immediately after welding. Post heating helps reduce stress in the weld metal.
power brushing A means of finishing a weld with a motorized brush.
preheating The application of heat to a base metal immediately before welding. Preheating helps reduce hardness in the weld metal.
reference line The horizontal line in the center of the welding symbol from which all elements of the welding symbol are referenced. The reference line is one of the most important elements of the welding symbol.
root angle The angle of the groove at the weld root of the two workpieces. The weld root is the point at which the base metals are closest together.
seam weld A type of continuous weld made between or upon overlapping metal parts.
specification A detailed description of particulars. Specification is often used interchangeably with the term code when referring to welding codes.
spot weld A type of weld made between or upon overlapping metal parts. Multiple spot welds are generally required to join parts.
square groove weld A groove weld placed in an opening between two parts in the shape of a square.
staggered-intermittent weld A type of intermittent weld that requires a sequence of welds on each side of the joint that do not line up evenly with each other.
standard An established rule or set of expectations. Standard is often used interchangeably with the term code when referring to welding codes.
supplementary symbol A symbol that appears within the welding symbol that gives further information about the weld. Supplementary symbols are not always included in the welding symbol.
symbol Something that is used to signify something else. A weld symbol tells the welder which type of weld to deposit into a joint.
tail The part of the welding symbol that appears opposite the arrow element on the reference line. The tail contains special directions about the weld.
tensile strength The ability of a metal to resist forces that attempt to pull it apart or stretch it.
tensile testing machine A machine used to test a metal's tensile strength. To calculate a weld's tensile strength, the tensile testing machine stretches a weld test specimen until it breaks.
tension-reduced section test A weld test that places a weld into a tensile testing machine to determine the metal's ductility.
test coupon A weld performed on a sample piece of metal with exactly the same variables outlined in the welding procedure specification for the purpose of testing and inspection.
test specimen A portion of the test coupon that undergoes weld testing and inspection.
T-joint A type of joint produced when two metal parts are perpendicular to each other, forming the shape of the letter "T."
tolerance An unwanted but acceptable deviation from a given dimension. Tolerances indicate the allowable difference between a physical feature and its intended design.
U-groove weld A type of groove weld with an opening in the shape of the letter "U." The edges of a U-groove weld are concave.
V-groove weld A type of groove weld with an opening in the shape of the letter "V." V-groove welds require more joint preparation but less weld metal.
visual inspection An inspection that requires an inspector to look closely at a welded part.
weld A mix of metals that joins at least two separate parts. Welds can be produced by applying heat, or pressure, or both heat and pressure, and they may or may not use an additional filler metal.
weld backing A strip of metal located on the side opposite of the weld that provides a surface for depositing the first layer of metal to prevent molten metal from escaping through the joint. Weld backing is used for complete penetration welds.
weld backing symbol A supplementary symbol that indicates the need for weld backing during welding.
weld dimension A specific measurement of a weld. Weld dimensions include length, pitch, and size.
weld face The exposed surface of a weld on the side from which welding occurs.
weld leg The distance from the root to the toe of the fillet weld. The size of the fillet weld is determined by the length of its legs.
weld size The dimensions of a weld that include leg length, convexity, and concavity.
weld spacer A metal strip that acts as weld backing, but is inserted in the root of a joint of a groove weld. Weld spacing maintains a joint's root opening during welding.
weld spacer symbol A supplementary symbol that indicates the need for a weld spacer during welding.
weld symbol A symbol that appears within the welding symbol that tells the welder the type of weld to deposit into a joint.
weld-all-around symbol A supplementary symbol that instructs the welder to weld on all sides of the joint.
welding code A standard used to govern welding processes and ensure safe welding practices and high-quality welded products.
welding performance qualification test A test administered to a welder to determine the welder's capacity to perform a specific welding application. Welding performance qualification tests are specific to a WPS.
welding procedure qualification record A written document that records the results of a weld that has undergone weld testing and inspection.
welding procedure specification A written document that contains all necessary and specific information regarding the application of a welding project. Welding procedure specifications must be approved and tested before welding can begin.
welding symbol A systematic grouping of symbols that together, denote welding instructions clearly and concisely.
weldor A term sometimes used to refer to the person who welds.