What is the definition of "weld spatter"?
Small particles of material that are expelled during the fusion of the weld and base metals. Weld spatter can pose a safety hazard to a welder.

Learn more about weld spatter in the class SAW Applications 255 below.


Welding Training


Class Information
Welding Training Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:SAW Applications 255
Description:This class describes SAW and how to make a submerged arc weld.
Prerequisites: 650110  650115  650120  650140<
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:18
Language:English, Spanish
 
Go to Catalog

Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Submerged Arc Welding
  • Electrical Power
  • Electrode Polarity
  • Single and Multiple SAW Electrodes
  • SAW Operating Variables
  • Operating Variables for Multiple-Electrode Welds
  • Circumferential Welds
  • Selecting Flux-Electrode Combinations
  • Flux-Electrode Classifications
  • Storing and Handling SAW Fluxes
  • Making a Submerged Arc Weld: Setup
  • Making a Submerged Arc Weld: Operation
  • Adjustments During Operation
  • Making a Submerged Arc Weld: Post-Operation
  • Porosity from Contaminants
  • Porosity from the Process
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe SAW.
  • Distinguish between CC and CV electrical power for SAW.
  • Distinguish between AC, DCEP, and DCEN electrode polarities for SAW.
  • Distinguish between single arc, parallel electrodes, and tandem arc.
  • Describe the effects of operating variables for submerged arc welds.
  • Describe the effects of operating variables for multiple-electrode submerged arc welds.
  • Describe circumferential submerged arc welds.
  • Describe the selection of flux-electrode combinations.
  • Identify flux-electrode classifications.
  • Describe proper storage and handling for SAW flux.
  • Describe the setup stage of making a submerged arc weld.
  • Describe the operation stage of making a submerged arc weld.
  • Describe the adjustment of operating variables during SAW.
  • Describe the post-operation stage of making a submerged arc weld.
  • Describe porosity caused by contamination.
  • Describe porosity caused by the process.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
AC Alternating current. Current that reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals of time. SAW machines can run on AC.
alternating current AC. Current that reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals of time. SAW machines can run on alternating current.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME. An organization that publishes technical materials and sets industrial and manufacturing standards.
American Welding Society AWS. The non-profit organization that regulates the industrial standards for welding and promotes the welding industry in the United States.
arc blow A condition that occurs when the arc does not follow its intended path from the electrode to the workpiece. Arc blow can cause undesirable weld beads.
arc blow A condition that occurs when the arc does not follow its intended path from the electrode to the workpiece. Arc blow can cause undesirable weld beads and porosity.
arc blow porosity The appearance of tiny bubbles on a weld bead as a result arc blow. An unstable electric arc introduces nitrogen and contaminants from the atmosphere into the weld, creating porosity.
arc welding A welding process that uses the heat generated from electricity to melt filler metal and base metals to form an airtight weld. Most arc welding processes have an exposed arc, but SAW completely submerges the arc in a blanket of granular flux.
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ASME is an organization that publishes technical materials and sets industrial and manufacturing standards.
AWS Specification A5.23 A print resource containing welding parameters and specifications for submerged arc welding. AWS Specification A5.23 contains information about heat treating welds.
burn-through A weld discontinuity that occurs when too much heat is applied to the weld zone, causing too much penetration. During SAW, excessively slow travel speeds increase the risk of burn-through.
circumferential weld A type of weld produced around the outer surface of a cylindrical workpiece. Circumferential welds are used to fabricate structural pipes.
composite electrode An electrode made of more than one metal. The WPS specifies whether or not a submerged arc welding application requires a composite electrode.
constant current A current that varies slightly during welding, with greater changes in voltage. Most submerged arc welds require the slower response times available in constant current.
constant voltage Welding using a voltage that varies slightly with greater changes in current, or amperage. Constant voltage is used for submerged arc welds that require faster response times.
contact tip The device located inside the welding gun that conducts electricity to the electrode and directs the wire electrode into the weld joint.
contact tip to work distance The distance from the end of the contact tip to the surface of a workpiece. As contact tip to work distance increases, the welding current decreases.
cross seam adjuster A radial adjuster that pivots a welding head around the electrode feeding out of the wire drive. Manual tracking uses cross seam adjusters for circumferential submerged arc welds.
cross slides Vertical and horizontal adjusters that move a welding head along a weld joint. Manual tracking uses cross slides for flat, horizontal submerged arc welds.
DC Direct current. Current formed when electrons flow in one continuous direction. SAW machines can run on DC.
DCEN Direct current electrode negative. The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the negative pole and the workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc.
DCEP Direct current electrode positive. The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the positive pole and the workpiece is the negative pole of the welding arc.
deposition rate An estimate of the melt-off rate, or the amount of filler metal deposited into a weld joint. The deposition rate can be measured in pounds per hour or in grams per minute.
diffusible hydrogen Hydrogen atoms or molecules that are capable of intermingling from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.
direct current DC. Current formed when electrons flow in one continuous direction. SAW machines can run on direct current.
direct current electrode negative DCEN. The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the negative pole and the workpiece is the positive pole of the welding arc.
direct current electrode positive DCEP. The arrangement of direct current arc welding cables and leads in which the electrode is the positive pole and the workpiece is the negative pole of the welding arc.
flash-through Flashes from the electric arc that penetrate the flux and slag, causing arc radiation. Flash through typically occurs because of insufficient flux, excess weld puddle interference with the arc, or bad welding practices.
flux dam Also known as a welding boat, a device used to descure the loose flux during a circumferential weld.
flux depth The amount of flux material that submerges the arc during SAW. If there is too much flux, the operator will not see any movement of flux particles. If there is too little flux, the operator will see flashes of the arc and weld spatter.
foot-pounds The work done by a force of one pound moving one foot in the direction of the force. Foot-pounds measure the strength of an impact.
freeze lines V-shaped lines that appear near a weld puddle and occur because the weld puddle interferes with the arc. The force of the arc pushes the molten metal back to the solid metal, where it freezes quickly.
gas metal arc welding An arc welding process in which a bare wire electrode and inert or active shielding gas are fed to the weld through a welding gun. It is also referred to as GMAW or MIG welding.
impact strength The ability of a metal to tolerate shock loads without deforming or fracturing.
incomplete penetration A discontinuity characterized by an unpenetrated and unfused area in a joint that occurs when weld metal does not extend through the thickness of the joint. Incomplete penetration can result from insufficient welding heat, improper joint design, and improper lateral control of the welding arc.
interpass temperature A specific temperature range within which the base material is heated during SAW operation. The lowest end of the interpass temperature is the preheat temperature for the welding operation.
lead wire An electric wire that connects to a power source and is physically located in front of the direction of welding. For multi-electrode submerged arc welds, either DC or AC can power the lead wire.
machine welding A type of submerged arc welding in which the operator monitors the flux and welding process while manual tracking adjusts the position of the welding head. Machine welding is more properly referred to as mechanized submerged arc welding.
manual tracking A device that adjusts the position of a welding head over a weld joint. Manual tracking is used in mechanized submerged arc welding.
mechanized SAW A type of submerged arc welding in which the operator monitors the flux and welding process while manual tracking adjusts the position of the welding head. Mechanized submerged arc welding is the most commonly used form of submerged arc welding.
mechanized submerged arc welding Mechanized SAW. A type of submerged arc welding in which the operator monitors the flux and welding process while manual tracking adjusts the position of the welding head. Mechanized submerged arc welding is the most commonly used form of submerged arc welding.
melt-off rate A measurement of the amount of filler metal deposited into a weld joint. The melt-off rate is measured in pounds per hour or grams per minute.
open arc A phrase used to describe all arc welding processes other than submerged arc welding. The term "open" refers to the exposed electric arc that is normal during most welding applications.
parallel electrodes Two electrodes connected to one power source and used to weld during SAW. Parallel electrode SAW systems offer faster travel speeds than single arc and are ideal for long, continuous flat and horizontal welds on light gauge plates.
polarity Having a positive or negative charge. During submerged arc welding, the electrode and the workpiece form a pair of poles: one negative and one positive.
porosity The appearance of tiny bubbles on a weld bead as a result of gas entrapment. Excessive porosity can weaken a weld.
preheat temperature A specific temperature to which the base material is heated prior to welding. A submerged arc weld may require that the base material is preheated before welding.
psi Pounds per square inch. A unit used to measure pressure.
relative humidity The ratio of the amount of water in the air at a given temperature to the maximum amount of water the air could hold at that temperature. Excessive humidity could make an area unsuitable for storing flux material for submerged arc welding.
response time The amount of time required for the welding machine's control system to respond to a change in voltage. CC mode provides the slower response times required by most submerged arc welds.
rollover A weld discontinuity characterized by the spilling of filler metal outside the weld groove. During SAW, an excessively slow travel speed can result in rollover.
SAW Submerged arc welding. A type of arc welding process that uses a continuously fed wire electrode as a filler metal while a granular flux completely shields and covers the arc. SAW is also called "subarc."
single arc A submerged arc welding operation that uses one electrode. Single arc is the simplest SAW system and is ideal for seam welds on sheet metal and short welds.
sliding shoe A device made of copper that connects the workpiece with the work cable on a circumferential submerged arc weld. Sliding shoes complete the welding circuit for circumferential submerged arc welds when a work connection cannot be used.
subarc A type of arc welding process that uses a continuously fed wire electrode as a filler metal while a granular flux completely shields and covers the arc. Subarc is more properly called submerged arc welding (SAW).
submerged arc welding SAW. A type of arc welding process that uses a continuously fed wire electrode as a filler metal while a granular flux completely shields and covers the arc. Submerged arc welding is also called "subarc."
tandem arc A submerged arc welding operation that uses a lead wire and a trail wire that are connected to two different power sources. Either DC or AC can power the lead wire, but AC should always power the trail wire.
tensile strength A material's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull it apart or stretch it. Submerged arc welds require a minimum tensile strength in order to function properly and safely in their final application.
trail wire An electric wire that connects to a power source and is physically located behind the direction of welding. For multi-electrode submerged arc welds, only AC should power the trail wire.
travel speed The speed at which the welder moves the electrode along the joint to make a weld. Travel speed determines the size of the weld bead.
travel unit A mechanical device connected to the frame of a submerged arc welding machine that guides the welding head. The travel unit moves the welding head along the weld joint.
undercut A groove melted into the base metal at the weld toe or weld root that is left unfilled by weld metal. The groove concentrates stresses on the weld and is considered a defect if the undercut exceeds the part's tolerances.
weld spatter Small particles of material that are expelled during the fusion of the weld and base metals. Weld spatter can pose a safety hazard to a welder.
welding boat Also known as a flux dam, a device used to secure loose flux during a circumferential weld.
welding head The combination of a motor, gear box, and contact nozzle that is usually mounted to a SAW machine. A welding head performs the same function as a welding gun, but the welding gun is portable.
Welding Procedure Specification WPS. A print publication that contains codes, guidelines, and recommendations for welding procedures. The Welding Procedure Specification specifies flux and electrode classifications for submerged arc welding.
wire feed rate The rate at which an electrode advances from a welding gun. Wire feed speed determines penetration and deposition rate.
work connection A device that connects the workpiece with the work cable. Welding circuits require an electrode connection to supply electricity to the electrode and a work connection to complete the circuit.
WPS Welding Procedure Specification. A print publication that contains codes, guildeines, and recommendations for welding procedures. The WPS specifies flux and electrode classifications for submerged arc welding.