What is the definition of "tensile strength"?
A material's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. Pigment clustering lowers a coating's tensile strength.

Learn more about tensile strength in the class Intro to Coating Composition 110 below.


Coatings Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Intro to Coating Composition 110
Description:This class discusses key components of a coating, as well as the environmental risks solvents pose and alternatives to using solvent as a carrier for coatings.
Prerequisites: none
Difficulty:Beginner
Number of Lessons:15
Language:English, Spanish
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is a Coating?
  • The Types of Coatings
  • Key Components of a Coating
  • Common Types of Resins
  • Lacquers and Enamels
  • Key Functions of a Resin
  • Appearance-Improving Pigments
  • Functional and Filler Pigments
  • Common Types of Additives
  • The Role of the Solvent
  • Types of Solvent
  • Solvent and Environmental Safety
  • Alternative Coating Technologies
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe a coating.
  • Distinguish between industrial coating and painting.
  • Identify key components of a coating.
  • Identify common types of binders.
  • Distinguish between lacquers and enamels.
  • Describe key functions of a binder.
  • Describe appearance-improving pigments.
  • Describe functional pigments and filler pigments.
  • Identify common types of additives.
  • Describe the role of a carrier.
  • Identify the main types of solvent.
  • Describe environmental risks of solvents.
  • Identify alternative coating technologies.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
acrylic A shapeless material that is resistant to weather and UV light. Acrylics produce coatings with shiny, hard finishes.
additive A substance that is added to an uncured coating to improve its physical and chemical properties. Additives often drastically change a coating's behavior and performance.
aluminum trihydrate A metal often used as a functional pigment in coatings. Aluminum trihydrate helps to provide a coating with flame resistance.
architectural coating Any coating meant to be used on buildings. Architectural coatings include house paints as well as various wood treatments and sealants.
bactericide A chemical agent that helps to prevent the formation of bacteria on objects and materials. Bactericides are often used as additivies in coatings.
binder Also known as a resin, the mixture of ingredients that form the film that covers the surface of an object. Once applied, the binder cures into a uniform layer that holds together the coating's key components.
calcium carbonate A colorless chemical compound often used as a filler pigment in coatings.
catalyst Also called a drier, an additive used to speed a coating film's curing time. Cobalt and zirconium are commonly used catalysts.
chemical anchor An agent that is applied to a surface and assists in adhesion between a surface treatment and the surface. In order for a resin to sufficiently adhere to a surface, sometimes the surface requires a chemical anchor.
chemical properties Any aspect of a property that occurs and can be observed during a chemical reaction. Additives often drastically change a coating's chemical properties.
coating Any protective film applied to the surface of an object. Paint is a commonly used coating.
cobalt A hard, gray, brittle metal often used as a catalyst additive in oil-based coatings.
colored pigment A type of appearance-improving pigment that can include almost any color of the color spectrum. Colored pigments are typically synthetic pigments.
cure To dry and harden into a uniform layer. Once applied to a surface, a resin cures into a uniform layer that holds a coating's key components.
degassing agent An additive used to minimize coating film defects by expelling volatile components from a coating during its application and curing.
drier Also called a catalyst, an additive used to speed a coating film's curing time. Cobalt and zirconium are commonly used driers.
electrostatic Describes a process in which a material or object gains an electrical charge and consequently becomes attracted to another material or object with an opposite electrical charge. Flakes formed in powder coating are typically applied to a surface through an electrostatic process.
enamel A type of coating that forms when the molecules in the coating mixture chemically react with each other to enable curing of the coating. All coatings form either lacquers or enamels.
Environmental Protection Agency EPA. The governmental agency responsible for administrating laws to control and reduce pollution of air, water, and land systems. The EPA severely restricts the use of solvents in coatings, as solvents release VOCs.
EPA The Environmental Protection Agency. The governmental agency responsible for administrating laws to control and reduce pollution of air, water, and land systems. The EPA severely restricts the use of solvents in coatings, as solvents release VOCs.
epoxy A manufactured polymer often used as a binder for coatings and is typically made of two components that are mixed together in a container. Epoxies are often used as primers.
evaporation The vaporization of liquid into the atmosphere. A carrier typically evaporates from a coating mixture upon application to a surface.
extender pigment Also called a filler pigment, a pigment used primarily to reduce coating cost, while also enhancing coating performance. Filler pigments are often substituted for more expensive functional color pigments.
extrusion The forming or shaping of material by forcing the material through a small opening. Powder coatings are manufactured through an extrusion process.
filler pigment Also called an extender pigment, a pigment used primarily to reduce coating cost, while also enhancing coating performance. Filler pigments are often substituted for more expensive functional color pigments.
functional pigment Pigment used primarily to improves a coating's physical and chemical properties. Metallic flake is a key functional pigment.
fungicide A chemical agent that helps to prevent the formation of fungus on objects and materials. Fungicides are often used as additives in coatings.
hiding power Also called opacity, the ability to hide the surface of an object. Pigments typically give a coating hiding power.
high-solid coating An alternative coating technology that uses approximately 30% solvent and 70% solid coating material. High-solid coating reverses the conventional make up of solvent borne coatings.
industrial coating Any type of coating applied at the point of manufacture. Industrial coatings can provide color to an object as well as added protection.
insoluble A substance that cannot be dissolved. Pigments used in coatings are insoluble particles.
isocyanate An agent that assists in the curing of binders used to form coatings. Isocyanate often is mixed with urethane to form a binder.
lacquer A type of coating that forms when the coating cures through the evaporation of the carrier. All coatings form either lacquers or enamels.
leafing The ability of metallic flakes used in coating pigments to align themselves so that they are parallel with the surface. Metallic flakes used in leafing form provide a coating with strong weather resistance.
MEK Methyl ethyl ketone. A colorless, highly flammable solvent often used for lacquer coatings.
metallic flake A special type of metallic pigment, an appearance-improving pigment used to give coatings a sparkling effect. Metallic flake is made of small particles of metal.
metallic pigment A type of appearance-improving pigment made of metal and used to give coatings a sparkling effect. Metallic flake is a special type of metallic pigment.
methyl ethyl ketone MEK. A colorless, highly flammable solvent often used for lacquer coatings.
methyl isobutyl ketone MIBK. A colorless, highly flammable solvent often used for lacquer coatings.
MIBK Methyl isobutyl ketone. A colorless, highly flammable solvent often used for lacquer coatings.
monomer A small molecule that joins with other molecules to form a polymer. Binders are often made of polymers.
non-leafing The ability of metallic flakes used in coating pigments to spread evenly over a surface. Metallic flake used in non-leafing form gives a coating a sparkly finish.
opacity Also called hiding power, the ability to hide the surface of an object. Pigments typically give a coating opacity.
optical properties Aspect of an object's physical appearance. Some pigments used in coatings are used primarily to enhance a coating's optical properties.
orange peel Uneven, rough irregularities in the surface of a coating film. Orange peel often occurs when a binder fails to flow uniformly across an object's surface.
ozone A toxic gas that is created when UV radiation hits the air. The release of VOCs into the atmosphere causes overproduction of ozone, which often results in air pollution.
physical properties Any aspect of a material that can be observed and measured without changing the essential properties of a material. Additives often drastically change a coating's physical properties.
pigment The microscopic insoluble particles that gives a coating color and opacity. Some pigments are used primarily to improve coating appearance, while others are used primarily to improve coating function.
pigment clustering Occurs when pigment particles bunch together. A binder's ability to suspend and separate movement of pigment particles and a pigment's good wetting ability help to prevent pigment clustering.
plasticizer An additive used to lower a coating's viscosity. Plasticizers help to reduce a coating's surface tension.
polarity Mutual attraction between molecules. Molecules in lacquer coating solutions have a high degree of polarity.
polyester A synthetic thermoset often used as a binder for coatings. Polyesters are often used in powder coating.
polymer A material made of monomers that join together. Binders contain polymers, which cause a cured coating to become a polymeric layer.
powder coating An alternative coating technology that uses air in place of a liquid solvent. During powder coating manufacturing, a coating mixture is heated, melted, and cooled, and then ground into powdery flakes.
primer A type of coating typically used to improve adhesion. Epoxies are often used as primers.
radiation-cure coating Also called UV-curing coating, an alternative coating technology that involves applying the coating as a liquid, and then baking it in an oven using UV light.
resin Also known as a binder, the mixture of ingredients that form the film that covers the surface of an object. Once applied, the resin cures into a uniform layer that holds together the coating's key components.
silicone A synthetic gel-like material often mixed with acrylic or epoxy to form a binder used in coatings. Silicones are known for their heat and weather resistance.
solvent The substance that reduces the viscosity of the coating mixture enough to easily and efficiently apply the coating to a surface. Solvents assist in the application process, but immediately after application, are removed from the coating mixture, typically through evaporation.
solvent-borne coating Conventional coating in which the main carrier is solvent. When exposed to normal temperatures, liquid solvents volatilize and release environmentally harmful volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere.
special purpose coating Any coating that has a significant additional ingredient that suits it to a specific purpose. Marine paints, aerosol spray paint, and road-marking paint are all special purpose coatings.
surface tension A property of a liquid that is demonstrated as the liquid tries to minimize the area of its surface. Wetting agents help to reduce surface tension in coatings.
talc A mineral often used as a filler pigment in coatings.
tensile strength A material's ability to resist forces that attempt to pull apart or stretch it. Pigment clustering lowers a coating's tensile strength.
thermoplastic A plastic that may be heated, shaped, and cooled without damage. Acrylics used in coatings are thermoplastic.
thermoset A type of plastic that requires heat to cure and is permanently hardened by cooling. Polyester is a thermoset.
thickener An additive used to increase a coating's viscosity.
titanium dioxide A white powder often used as a white pigment. Titanium dioxide has a high degree of opacity.
toluene A clear, colorless solvent that mixes well with oil-based binders. Toluene is often used as a carrier in oil-based coatings.
ultraviolet light UV light. Light not visible to the naked eye because it consists of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light.
urethane A manufactured polymer that is often used a binder for coatings and is known for its strength and versatility. Urethane is made of isocyanate and alcohol, which are mixed together and undergo a chemical reaction to enable curing of a binder.
UV absorber An additive that provides a coating with weather resistance by absorbing UV light. UV absorbers are added to coatings designed for outdoor use.
UV light Ultraviolet light. Light not visible to the naked eye because it consists of wavelengths shorter than those of visible light.
UV-cure coating Also called radiation-curing coating, an alternative coating technology that involves applying the coating as a liquid, and then baking it an oven using UV light.
varnish A transparent protective film often used to coat wood surfaces. Some colorless coatings, such as varnishes, do not contain a pigment.
vinyl A synthetic material often mixed with acrylic or epoxy to form a binder used in coatings. Silicones are known for their heat and weather resistance.
viscosity A fluid's resistance to flow. Carriers reduce the viscosity of a coating enough that the coating can be easily applied to a surface.
viscous Resistant to flow. A carrier is used in a binder solution to make a coating less viscous.
VOC Volatile organic compound. A harmful gas or vapor released into the atmosphere when a liquid solvent volatilizes, or vaporizes. The EPA severely restricts the use of solvents as carriers for coatings, as solvents release VOCs.
volatile organic compound VOC. A harmful gas or vapor released into the atmosphere when a liquid solvent volatilizes, or vaporizes. The EPA severely restricts the use of solvents as carriers for coatings, as solvents release VOCs.
volatilize To evaporate into the atmosphere. VOCs volatilize when a solvent-borne coating is applied to a surface.
waterborne coating An alternative coating technology that uses approximately 70% water and 30% solid coating material. Water is used to replace solvent.
wetting The behavior of a liquid when the liquid contacts a solid surface. Liquids with poor wetting ability tend to form droplets, while liquids with good wetting ability tend to spread out evenly over the solid surface area.
wetting agent An additive used to reduce a coating's surface tension by increasing pigment particles' wetting ability.
white pigment A type of appearance-improving pigment that disperses light wavelengths to make the pigment appear white to the naked eye. White pigments have a high degree of hiding power.
xylene A colorless, highly flammable solvent known for its high evaporation rate. Xylene is often used as a carrier with coatings that cure by heat or air.
zinc dust A metal often used as a functional pigment in coatings. Zinc dust improves the electricical conductivity of the coating film, which helps to provide the coating with corrosion resistance.
zinc phosphate A metal often used as a functional pigment in coatings. Zinc phosphate helps to provide a coating with corrosion resistance.
zirconium A strong, gray metal often used as a catalyst additive in oil-based coatings.