additive inverse

A new operation that, through addition or subtraction, removes a number or variable from an equation. The additive inverse is the opposite of the number or variable that is removed.

algebra

A branch of math that uses known quantities to find unknown quantities. In algebra, letters are sometimes used in place of numbers.

balancing

Introducing a series of new operations to both sides of an equation to solve for an unknown variable. Whichever operations take place on one side also must take place on the other.

common denominator

A term or number that evenly divides all of the terms or numbers that appear below the lines in multiple fractions.

constant

A variable or number that does not change value.

distributing

An operation in which the individual terms in a group are multiplied by the same term outside of the group.

equation

A mathematical statement that shows the equality of two expressions. In 2 + 2 = 4, both sides of the equation are two different ways to express the same value.

exponent

The proper term for a power.

factoring

An operation in which the common number in a set of terms is factored or divided out.

formula

A representation of a known equation using letters, numbers, and/or symbols.

fraction line

The horizontal line that separates the numerator and denominator in a fraction.

greatest common factor

The largest term or number that evenly divides each term of an expression.

grouping

A method of organizing the sequence of mathematical operations by using symbols such as parentheses.

multiplicative inverse

A new operation that, through multiplication or division, removes a number or variable from an equation. The multiplicative inverse is the opposite of the number or variable that is removed.

nesting

The placement of a group of terms within a larger grouping of terms.

numerator

The expression or number that appears above the line in a fraction.

operation

A mathematical action or process such as addition or subtraction.

order of operations

A set of mathematical rules that dictates the sequence in which operations must be performed.

power

A value indicating how many times a number or variable is multiplied by itself to reach a new value. Powers, or exponents, are positioned above and to the right of another number or variable.

radical

A checkmarklike symbol that indicates that the number inside of it should be read as the root of that number.

reducing

The combining of similar terms to simplify an equation. Reducing often takes place through addition and subtraction.

root

A value indicating how many times a new, unknown value must be multiplied by itself to equal the stated number or variable. A root is an inverse of a power operation.

solving

Finding the solution or answer to a problem with an unknown variable.

square root

A type of root that asks, "what number times itself is equal to the stated number or variable?"

superscript

A small number, letter, or symbol that appears above and to the right of another number, letter, or symbol.

term

A series of numbers or variables connected to one another by multiplication or division operations.

variable

A symbol, such as a letter of the alphabet, that represents an unknown quantity.
