What is the definition of "longitudinal stability"?
A PIT's ability to resist tipping forward. When vehicle weight exceeds load weight, longitudinal stability generally exists.

Learn more about longitudinal stability in the class Powered Industrial Truck Safety 210 below.


Safety Training


Class Information
Tooling U classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Powered Industrial Truck Safety 210
Description:This class covers different types of powered industrial trucks, such as forklifts, and includes guidelines for use, training requirements, and stability principles.
Prerequisites: 850100 
Difficulty:Intermediate
Number of Lessons:19
Language:English, Spanish

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Below are all the competencies and job programs that contain the class Powered Industrial Truck Safety 210. Job programs are our traditional class lists organized according to common job functions. Competencies are our latest job-specific curricula that help tie online learning to practical, hands-on tasks.

Click on any title to view its details.



Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Powered Industrial Trucks
  • Requirements for Using Powered Industrial Trucks
  • Powered Industrial Truck Types and Classifications
  • Training Requirements
  • Maintenance Requirements
  • Traveling Requirements
  • Operation Requirements: Attended Vehicles
  • Operation Requirements: Unattended Vehicles
  • Loading Requirements
  • Principles of Stability
  • The Principle of Moment
  • The Stability Triangle and Center of Gravity
  • Vertical Stability Line and Load Center
  • Longitudinal Stability
  • Calculating Longitudinal Stability
  • Lateral Stability
  • Dynamic Stability
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Define powered industrial truck.
  • Describe requirements for using powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe how powered industrial trucks are commonly classified.
  • Describe OSHA’s training requirements for powered industrial truck operators.
  • Describe maintenance requirements for powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe traveling requirements for powered industrial trucks.
  • Describe operation requirements for attended vehicles.
  • Describe operation requirements for unattended vehicles.
  • Describe loading requirements for PITs.
  • Describe vehicle stability.
  • Describe the principle of moment.
  • Describe the relationship between the stability triangle and the center of gravity.
  • Identify the location of the vertical stability line and the load center.
  • Describe how to maintain longitudinal stability.
  • Calculate maximum allowable load weight for maintaining longitudinal stability.
  • Describe how to maintain lateral stability.
  • Describe how to maintain dynamic stability.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
aisle sideloader A type of powered industrial truck designed for use in narrow spaces, such as warehouses.
attended vehicle A PIT with an operator either on board or within a given number of feet of the PIT while it is running.
capacity The maximum amount of volume or weight that can be safely contained or handled. The capacity of a PIT is listed on a metal plate that is attached to the vehicle.
center of gravity The point at which all the surrounding weight is equal. It is the point at which an object is in balance.
combined center of gravity On a forklift, it is the point at which the vehicle weight and the load weight combine. When the combined center of gravity is within the vehicle's stability triangle, the PIT will not tip.
counterbalance To balance one weight with another. Counterbalancing increases stability.
counterweight A weight that is used to counterbalance a heavy load. The forklift's own weight acts as a counterbalance to a load, but additional weight may be added for greater counterbalancing.
data plate A metal plate affixed to the vehicle by the manufacturer that contains information such as the weight of the vehicle.
distribution The method that the weight of a load is spread over the lifting device.
dynamic stability A forklift’s ability to stay upright while in motion. When the vehicle is moving, braking, turning corners, lifting, tilting, or otherwise moving, various forces can act on the load and vehicle to make it less stable and more likely to tip over.
electric-powered industrial truck A type of powered industrial truck or forklift that runs on electricity.
Fair Labor Standards Act The federal law which sets minimum wage, overtime pay, equal pay, record keeping, and the child labor standards for employees.
forklift A type of powered industrial truck that has two prongs on the front for lifting pallets of material. Forklifts are one of the most common types of PIT.
fulcrum A pivot point of a lever, or the point around which an object turns.
inch pounds The recommended number of pounds per square inch that the vehicle should carry.
internal-combustion-engine-powered industrial truck A type of powered industrial truck that runs on gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, or diesel fuel.
lateral stability The ability of a PIT to remain upright and not tip over sideways. A load that is out of balance or on an uneven traveling surface can affect lateral stability.
liquefied petroleum gas Fuel made from propane, butane, or a mixture of both.
load backrest extension The back wall on the lifting portion of the forklift that lies perpendicular to the forks or platform. The load backrest extension prevents the load from falling backwards onto the driver.
load center The horizontal space that exists between the edge of the load and the vertical stability line. The load center is the distance portion of the moment principle.
longitudinal stability A PIT's ability to resist tipping forward. When vehicle weight exceeds load weight, longitudinal stability generally exists.
manifest A list of goods or materials being transported by truck, train, or other means. The manifest usually includes details such as the size, weight, and contents of the objects or substances.
mast The vertical portion of the lift mechanism that raises the load into the air.
moment A force that attempts to produce motion around a given point or fulcrum. Moment is the combination of weight and distance from the fulcrum.
momentum Mass multiplied by velocity, or the combination of weight and motion. Excessive momentum can cause a vehicle to tip.
nonagricultural industries Those industries, such as manufacturing, that do not involve growing or harvesting food products.
noncombustible agent A substance that will not catch fire or explode.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration A government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Labor that helps employers reduce injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace.
overhead guard The upper portion of the body of the vehicle that serves as a type of roof or rollbar. The overhead guard protects the operator from falling loads.
pallet A low, portable platform made of wood, metal, or plastic on which goods and materials are stacked for storage or transportation. Pallets are also known as skids.
pallet lift A type of powered industrial truck used to raise wooden or metal platforms or pallets on which objects or materials are resting.
pivot pin The point on the rear axle of a forklift that transfers the motion of the steering wheel to the wheels to change their direction.
powered industrial truck Any mobile, power-propelled truck, other than an earth-moving or road-hauling vehicle, that is capable of carrying, pushing, pulling, lifting, or stacking materials. A forklift is a common type of PIT.
rated capacity The manufacturer's guidelines for how much weight a PIT can safely carry.
see-saw A long, narrow board balanced in the middle on a fulcrum in such a way that, as one end goes up, the other goes down.
stability The ability of a PIT to remain upright. Stability is the most important factor necessary for avoiding accidents.
stability triangle The area on a forklift in which the load must be suspended in order for the forklift not to tip. The vehicle's center of gravity is within the stability triangle.
standard load center measurement Half the distance from the inside edge of the forks or platform to the center. On a 48 in. platform, the standard load center measurement is 24 inches.
three-point suspension system A device that is balanced or supported at three different locations. A forklift has a three-point suspension system.
track The distance between the wheels on the same axle.
unattended vehicle A vehicle that does not have an operator on board or within proximity. There are specific rules governing unattended vehicles, including how they should be secured.
vehicle height The total vertical distance covered by the vehicle and mast at its highest extension.
vehicle wheel base The distance between the centerlines of the vehicle’s front and rear wheels.
vertical stability line An imaginary line drawn through the vehicle's center of gravity and the load's center of gravity.