What is the definition of "C/O"?
Changeover time. The non-value added time required to convert a setup for one product line to a setup for another product line.

Learn more about C/O in the class Value Stream Mapping: The Present State 300 below.


Quality Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Value Stream Mapping: The Present State 300
Description:This class introduces the elements used to create a value stream map and covers how to create a value stream map of the present state.
Prerequisites: 900230  900240 
Difficulty:Advanced
Number of Lessons:20
Language:English, Spanish
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • What Is a Value Stream Map?
  • Present and Future States
  • Mapping Symbols: Process Icons
  • Mapping Symbols: Material Icons
  • Mapping Symbols: Information Icons
  • Mapping Symbols: Miscellaneous Icons
  • Mapping the Present State
  • Mapping the Present State: Example
  • Shipping and Receiving
  • Shipping and Receiving: Example
  • Process and Data Boxes
  • Process and Data Boxes: Example
  • The Flow of Information
  • The Flow of Information: Example
  • Inventory
  • Push, Pull, and FIFO
  • Metrics
  • Metrics: Example
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe a value stream map.
  • Describe present and future state value stream maps.
  • Identify process icons.
  • Identify material icons.
  • Identify information icons.
  • Describe miscellaneous mapping icons.
  • Identify location of the supplier, customer, and production control icons.
  • Calculate and place customer requirements on a value stream map.
  • Identify location of icons and arrows related to shipping and receiving.
  • Place shipping and receiving icons and arrows on a value stream map (VSM).
  • Define concepts commonly tracked in a data box.
  • Calculate the uptime for a particular process.
  • Identify location of arrows related to the flow of information.
  • Calculate value-added and non-value-added time.
  • Identify inventory locations.
  • Distinguish between Push, Pull, and FIFO.
  • Describe common metrics.
  • Calculate capacity for a process.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
actual production time The availability time minus the changeover time.
assembly The process by which two or more objects are joined together.
availability time The time a production line is available for production. Availability time is measured in seconds and does not include planned downtime like lunch periods and breaks.
available production time Part of a general information box located at the top right of a value stream map that indicates the time that can be used for production. Available time is the shift time minus planned breaks and is measured in minutes.
bending The process by which a material, usually bar stock, is formed into a desired circular shape.
C/O Changeover time. The non-value added time required to convert a setup for one product line to a setup for another product line.
C/T Cycle time. The time required to complete one manufacturing process in the value stream.
capacity A metric that indicates how many parts per day your slowest process can handle. Capacity is determined by multiplying parts per hour by the time in one shift or one day.
changeover time C/O. The non-value added time required to convert a setup for one product line to a setup for another product line.
communication arrow A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate the flow of information or goods.
customer icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the customer. The customer icon is usually situated in the upper right corner of the value stream map.
cycle time C/T. The time required to complete one manufacturing process in the value stream.
data box A value stream mapping symbol used to represent information related to a particular process. Data boxes are located directly beneath a process box.
drilling The use of a multi-point tool to machine a new round hole into the surface of a workpiece.
EDI Electronic Data Interchange. The standard data transmission between computers.
electronic info icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the flow of electronic information.
external shipment icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent shipments from suppliers or to customers.
FIFO First in first out. An inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system.
FIFO lane icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent first-in-first-out inventory, an inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system.
first-in-first-out inventory FIFO inventory. An inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system.
future state map A visual tool that shows how a value stream can look after improvements have been implemented. A future-state value stream map is an ideal view of a value stream and represents the goal of a lean initiative.
go see icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which information must be gathered.
inventory icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent raw materials before processing, parts in varying stages of completion between processes, or finished goods in storage before shipment to a customer.
kaizen The belief that an organization must maintain a focus on change for the better or continuous improvement.
kaizen burst icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area of the value stream at which attention from a kaizen workshop should be sought.
kanban post icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area of the value stream at which kanban signals are waiting for transport.
lead time The amount of time it takes from the beginning of a project to the completion of a finished part, or from an order for a part and its shipment to a customer.
load leveling icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area at which production can be targeted and "smoothed out" over time.
low-variety/high-volume A type of manufacturing environment in which the end products are produced in large quantities and with very little variation.
manual info icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the flow of written or spoken information.
material pull icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent areas of the stream where downstream processes connect to a supermarket.
metrics Measured variables that are tracked and can be used to detect errors or variation and make improvements.
milling A metal cutting process that uses a rotating multi-point cutting tool to machine flat surfaces, slots, or internal recesses into a workpiece.
MRP/ERP icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a material requirements planning or enterprise resource planning scheduling system.
non-value added Activities that do not contribute to the product or the process and should therefore be eliminated. Non-value added steps are waste.
non-value added but essential Production activities that ensure the value-added steps have been properly completed. For example, inspection does not contribute to the product, but it is necessary until the process can be improved to the point where inspection can be eliminated.
operator icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a human operator in the value stream. Multiple operators are indicated by a number next to the operator icon.
other information icon A value stream mapping symbol used to contain any other useful miscellaneous information that may be critical to defining the given value stream.
parts per hour A metric that indicates the amount of parts produced within one hour. PPH is a good indicator of process efficiency.
planned break Part of a general information box located at the top right of a value stream map that indicates the portion of the shift time spent away from production. Shift time includes lunch time and is measured in hours.
present state map A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment. A present-state value stream map captures all of the details of manufacturing processes just as they exist at the moment the map is produced, including any flaws or errors.
process box A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a single operation. Process boxes are located along the bottom of the value stream map.
process map A flow charting method that uses general symbols and arrows to show the flow of the manufacturing process.
production control icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the area of the map where control and scheduling decisions are made.
production kanban icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a visual signal asks for more parts from upstream processes.
production supervisor A leader who directs the flow of information from production control to each individual process. The production supervisor is represented by a box located in the center of a value stream map.
pull A progressive, lean manufacturing method in which items are not delivered to a stage of the process until they are needed. Pull systems help reduce inventory.
push A traditional manufacturing environment in which parts are produced based on keeping up with preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts.
push arrow A value stream mapping symbol used to show on the map where products are being "pushed" through the system. In a push system, production is based on keeping up with preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts.
receiving The movement of raw materials from a supplier to a manufacturing facility.
safety stock icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent temporary inventory kept on hand to protect the stream from downtime.
sawing A basic metal cutting process in which a multi-point blade is used to cut through metal and separate it into pieces.
sequenced pull icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate an area at which a pull system tells other processes to produce a product while bypassing the supermarket.
shift time Part of a general information box located at the top right of a value stream map that indicates the length of a work shift. Shift time is measured in hours.
shipment arrow A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the shipping and receiving of goods. Receiving involves the movement of materials from suppliers, while shipping involves the movement of materials to customers.
shipping The movement of materials from a manufacturing facility to a customer.
signal kanban icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a kanban signal notifies processes upstream that the supermarket inventory levels are down to a minimum.
spaghetti diagram A flow charting method that uses a continuous line to trace the path of a part through all phases of manufacturing. Spaghetti diagrams expose inefficient layouts and large distances traveled between steps.
supermarket icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a stockpoint of inventory that supplies multiple downstream channels.
supplier icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent the entity that provides raw materials. The supplier icon is usually situated in the upper left corner of the value stream map.
testing The examination of a part to ensure that it performs its intended function.
timeline A two-tier system of lines used to indicate value added and non-value added time on a value stream map.
total cycle time The sum of all cycle times in a value stream. Total cycle time is also called total value-adding time.
total value-adding time The sum of all cycle times in a value stream. Total value-adding time is also called total cycle time.
uptime The ratio of the actual production time of a machine to the availability time. Expressed as a percentage, uptime is calculated by dividing actual production time by the availability time.
value A real or perceived quality that satisfies the needs and wants of a customer. Value includes the features of a product, as well as other qualities associated with the product.
value added Any part of the production process that improves the product for the customer. For a process to be value-added, a customer must be willing to pay for it.
value stream The series of activities within a supply chain that add value from the perception of the customer. The value stream involves the series of activities needed to create a product.
value stream map A sophisticated flow charting method that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to help visualize processes and track performance. This method helps determine which steps of a process add value and which do not.
verbal information icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which verbal interaction takes place.
waste Any element of the manufacturing process that does not add value to a product. The goal of lean manufacturing is to eliminate waste.
WIP Work in progress. A type of inventory that is currently in process and is measured in days.
withdrawal kanban icon A value stream mapping symbol used to indicate a point at which a visual signal asks for parts from a supermarket to be moved to a downstream process.
work in progress WIP. A type of inventory that is currently in process and is measured in days.
workcell A specialized grouping of people, machines, and materials. The purpose of a cell is to efficiently produce small batches of parts.
workcell icon A value stream mapping symbol used to represent a group consisting of many processes, people, and machines used to efficiently produce one part in small batches.