What is the definition of "uptime"?
The ratio of the actual production time of a machine to the availability time. Expressed as a percentage, uptime is calculated by dividing actual production time by the availability time.

## Quality Training

Class Information
 Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
 Class Name: Value Stream Mapping: The Future State 305 Description: This class introduces strategies commonly used to create a future state value stream map based on findings from a present state value stream map. Difficulty: Advanced Number of Lessons: 17 Language: English, Spanish

Class Outline
• Objectives
• Mapping the Future State
• Revisiting the Present State
• Present State Metrics
• Demand: Takt Time
• The Future and Takt Time
• Flow: Bottlenecks
• Focus Areas: Kaizen Bursts
• The Future and Kaizen Bursts
• Flow: Work Cells
• The Future and Work Cells
• Flow: Avoiding Push
• The Future and Production Management
• Leveling Production: Heijunka
• VSM Implementation: Metrics Revisited
• The Limits of VSM
• Summary

Class Objectives
• Describe value stream mapping.
• Calculate availability time.
• Distinguish between various metrics.
• Calculate Takt time.
• Identify processes with capacity problems using Takt time.
• Identify a bottleneck process.
• Describe kaizen bursts.
• Identify a kaizen event strategy.
• Describe work cells.
• Describe how the physical arrangement of machines affects flow.
• Describe push and its relation to flow.
• Describe pull and its relation to flow.
• Define heijunka.
• Describe ways in which metrics show improvement.
• Describe the limits of value stream mapping.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
The time a production line is available for production. Availability time is measured in seconds and does not include planned downtime like lunch periods and breaks.
A specific quantity to be produced. Batch-model assembly lines produce products in groups.
The production process with the longest cycle time. A bottleneck process limits the flow of production and is easily identified when compared to takt time.
A variation of FIFO in which a larger overall assembly schedule is developed and used to guide other sub-processes so that they have components ready. The larger overall assembly schedule is "broadcast" upstream, notifying all sub-processes of their schedule according to the guidance of the larger assembly schedule.
A store of goods made available when customer orders vary, causing sudden increases in demand. Buffer inventory acts as a cushion against the complete depletion of product stock.
A metric that indicates how many parts per day your slowest process can handle. Capacity is determined by multiplying parts per hour by the time in one shift or one day.
C/O. The non-value added time required to convert a setup for one product line to a setup for another product line.
The belief that an organization must constantly measure the effectiveness of its processes and strive to meet more difficult objectives to satisfy customers.
The number of units that a customer is requiring in a certain time period.
First in first out. An inventory management method in which the oldest product, or first product, is processed first and thus is the first to come out of the system. In FIFO, the production processes follow the same schedule and work in the same sequence.
A visual tool that shows how a value stream can look after improvements have been implemented. A future-state value stream map is an ideal view of a value stream and represents the goal of a lean initiative.
The lean practice of averaging the volume of items produced and the schedule of production. The goal of heijunka is daily consistency permitting continuous flow.
A type of manufacturing environment in which the end products are produced in small quantities and with large variation. Value stream mapping is not ideal for high-variety/low-volume manufacturing environments.
The belief that an organization must maintain a focus on change for the better or continuous improvement. "Kaizen" is a Japanese word meaning "change for the better."
A multi-day, hands-on event that targets a particular problem area within a company. Kaizen bursts, often called kaizen events, result in dramatic changes carried out by a cross-functional team.
A multi-day, hands-on event that targets a particular problem area within a company. Kaizen events, often called kaizen bursts, result in dramatic changes carried out by a cross-functional team.
A Japanese word meaning "card signal." It represents any visual method used to show the need for parts or products to be moved or produced in a lean system.
A stockpoint of inventory that supplies a downstream channel.
The amount of time it takes from the beginning of a project to the completion of a finished part, or from an order for a part and its shipment to a customer.
A group of work cells tied together using kanban. Parts travel between cells in small batches but are fabricated one at a time within individual cells.
The number of parts created during the use of a particular tooling setup.
A type of manufacturing environment in which the end products are produced in large quantities and with very little variation. Value stream mapping is ideal for low-variety/high-volume manufacturing environments.
A shop floor employee responsible for delivering kanban cards and part components between processes along the value stream. The material handler, or runner, seeks to maintain pitch.
A variation of takt time that accounts for predictable system failures.
A metric that indicates the amount of parts produced within one hour. PPH is a good indicator of process efficiency.
The time it takes to create a container of finished parts. Pitch is the number of parts in a container multiplied by takt time.
A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment. A present-state value stream map captures all of the details of manufacturing processes just as they exist at the moment the map is produced, including any flaws or errors.
A point at which a visual signal asks for parts to be moved to a downstream process.
A material management system in which parts are not delivered to machines until they are needed. Pull systems are based on actual demand for parts.
A production method based on keeping up with preset inventory levels or with due dates for customer orders rather than customer demand.
A shop floor employee responsible for delivering kanban cards and component parts between processes along the value stream. The runner, or material handler, seeks to maintain pitch.
A store of goods made available when the variables of your operation impede production. Safety inventory is a type of buffer inventory.
The ideal pace of production that meets the pace of demand and consumption. "Takt" is a German word meaning "beat."
The rate of production for a process over a specific amount of time
The sum of all cycle times in a value stream. Total cycle time is also called total value-adding time.
The amount of activity characterized mainly by movement of persons and parts in a particular area of a manufacturing environment.
A combination of a number and a series of parallel lines, known as a bar code, that appears on consumer packaging and is used in some shops as kanban.
The ratio of the actual production time of a machine to the availability time. Expressed as a percentage, uptime is calculated by dividing actual production time by the availability time.
A sophisticated flow charting method that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to help visualize processes and track performance. This method helps determine which steps of a process add value and which do not.
Work in progress. A type of inventory that is currently in process and is measured in days.
A specialized grouping of people, machines, and materials. The purpose of a cell, or work module, is to efficiently produce small batches of parts.
WIP. A type of inventory that is currently in process and is measured in days.
A specialized grouping of people, machines, and materials. The purpose of a module, or work cell, is to efficiently produce small batches of parts.