## Shop Essentials (Applied Mathematics) Training

Class Information
 Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
 Class Name: Manufacturing Process Applications: Part I 124 Description: This class introduces common metal shaping operations, including sheet and bulk metal processes, extrusion, forging, casting, and powder metallurgy. Difficulty: Beginner Number of Lessons: 19 Language: English

Class Outline
• Objectives
• Metal Forming Operations
• Hot Working and Cold Working
• Bulk Metal and Sheet Metal
• Shearing
• Other Sheet Metal Cutting Processes
• Sheet Metal Bending
• Sheet Metal Drawing and Roll Forming
• Bulk Metal Processes
• Bulk Metal Rolling and Drawing
• Metal Extrusion
• Forging
• Common Forging Methods
• Metal Casting
• Common Casting Methods
• Investment Casting and Evaporative Casting
• Powder Metallurgy
• Advantages of PM
• Summary

Class Objectives
• Describe common metal shaping processes.
• Distinguish between hot working and cold working.
• Distinguish between sheet metal and bulk metal.
• Describe sheet metal shearing.
• Identify common sheet metal cutting processes.
• Describe sheet metal bending.
• Describe sheet metal drawing and roll forming.
• Describe bulk metal.
• Describe bulk metal rolling and drawing.
• Describe metal extrusion.
• Describe forging and common forging machines.
• Describe common forging methods.
• Identify the basic parts of a mold.
• Describe green sand casting, shell molding, and reusable mold methods.
• Describe investment casting and evaporative casting.
• List the steps involved in powder metallurgy.
• Describe the advantages of PM.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
The bottom component on a drop hammer machine. The anvil holds the workpiece that is being forged.
A process that forces material to flow backward around a punch as the punch presses through it. Backward extrusion is also called indirect extrusion.
Creating angles in sheet metal, typically by using a punch and die. Bending compresses the interior side of the bend while stretching the exterior.
A semi-finished piece of round or rectangular bulk metal stock. A billet is smaller than a bloom.
A sheet metal shape resulting from a blanking operation. Blanks are then used in other processes, such as bending, punching, and drawing.
A shearing operation that removes an interior section of sheet metal. The removed section is the desired piece, which moves on to other forming operations, such as punching or drawing.
Mixing binders, lubricants, and other materials with powdered metal. Blending is the second step in manufacturing powder metal parts.
A semi-finished piece of round or rectangular bulk metal stock. A bloom is larger than a billet.
A mass of unprocessed or semi-processed metal. Bulk metal shapes are the starting forms for many continuous metal shaping processes.
Pulling bulk metal stock through a die opening that is smaller than the diameter of the stock. Bulk metal drawing elongates the microstructure of the metal.
Compressing and elongating bulk metal stock using a series of rollers. Rolling can shape bulk metal into forms like plates, rods, and bars.
A process that forms parts by pouring or injecting molten metal into a mold cavity. The resulting shape is called a casting.
A metal insert added to a mold to regulate solidification of the molten metal. Chills can prevent defects in the casting.
An unwanted piece of cut away metal. Chips are the by-product of machining.
The angled gap between the punch and die block in sheet metal shearing. Incorrectly calculated clearance can damage the sheared edge or the cutting tool.
Also called impression die forging, a forging process that compresses metal between two dies containing a negative shape of the part. Closed dies create flash that must be removed after forging.
Any metal shaping process that takes place when the metal is below its recrystallization temperature.
Pressing powder metal into a green compact using two opposing forces. Compacting is the third step in manufacturing powder metal parts.
An uninterrupted metal shaping process. A continuous process usually creates long pieces with uniform cross sections.
The top half of the mold in a casting operation. Most molds have two halves that are used together to shape the casting.
Shapes in the mold cavity that create the internal surfaces of the casting. When metal enters the cavity, it flows around the core and solidifies against it.
The predictable arrangement of atoms in a metal. Each metal has a specific crystalline structure that determines its unique properties.
A casting process that involves forcing material into a mold. In metal die casting, the die acts as the mold.
An unwanted but acceptable deviation from a specified dimension.
A continuous process that forces material to flow forward through a container and past one or more die openings. Direct extrusion is also called forward extrusion.
The bottom half of the mold in a casting operation. Most molds have two halves that are used together to shape the casting.
A vertically oriented forging machine with a top weighted ram and a bottom anvil. The force generated from the falling ram forges metal in a die on the lower anvil.
A casting process that creates intricate parts from an expendable polystyrene pattern and expendable sand mold. Evaporative casting is also called lost foam casting.
A shaping process that forces material to flow through a die or around a punch.
An excess of metal that flows outside of the main impression during impression die forging. Flash helps fill the die cavity but must be removed after forging.
An impression die forging method that does not create flash. Flashless forging is also called precision forging.
A forging process that compresses metal between two flat dies. A skilled operator controls the shape of the metal workpiece by moving the metal. Flat die forging is also called open die forging or hand die forging.
A metal shaping process that uses force to compress and align the metal's internal structure.
A continuous process that forces material to flow forward through a container and past one or more die openings. Forward extrusion is also called direct extrusion.
The entryway to the mold's cavity. The molten metal moves through the runner and past the gate where it enters the cavity.
The weak metal part created after compacting in powder metallurgy. Sintering strengthens the green compact by fusing the blended materials.
A casting process that uses an expendable wet sand mold and reusable pattern.
A forging process that compresses metal between two flat dies. A skilled operator controls the shape of the metal workpiece by moving the metal. Hand forging is also called open die forging or flat die forging.
A forging method that compresses a workpiece, decreasing its length and creating a mass at one end. Heading is often used to shape bolts, and is also called upset forging or hot heading.
A forging method that compresses a workpiece, decreasing its length and creating a mass at one end. Hot heading is used to shape bolts, and is also called heading or upset forging.
Any metal shaping process that takes place when the metal is heated above its recrystallization temperature.
Also called closed die forging, a forging process that compresses metal between two dies containing the negative shape of the part. Impression dies create flash that must be removed after forging.
A process that forces material to flow backward around a punch as the punch presses through it. Indirect extrusion is also called backward extrusion.
A solid mass of metal that is in a suitable shape for shipping, storing, or further processing.
A casting process that creates intricate shapes using an expendable wax pattern and expendable ceramic mold. Investment casting is also called precision casting.
A shearing operation that cuts through an interior section of sheet metal without creating scrap. Lancing creates louvers, like the vents in gym lockers.
A casting process that creates intricate parts from an expendable polystyrene pattern and expendable sand mold. Lost foam casting is also called evaporative casting.
Manufacturing powder metal by spraying liquid metal with water, air, or inert gas in an atomization chamber. The spray causes the metal to cool and solidify into particles.
A hollow cavity used to shape material. In metal casting, the mold is filled with liquid metal, which takes the shape of the mold as it solidifies.
Having dimensions that are close to a final form after initial manufacturing steps. Parts that are near-net shape require little subsequent machining.
The boundary between the stressed and compressed surfaces in bent metal.
A shearing operation that cuts overlapping holes in sheet metal. Nibbling is used to create curved, non-linear cuts.
A shearing operation that removes an area around the edge of the sheet metal. Notched workpieces can then be bent into shapes, such as a box.
A forging process that compresses metal between two flat dies. A skilled operator controls the shape of the metal workpiece by moving the metal. Open die forging is also called hand forging or flat die forging.
A shearing operation that separates two pieces of sheet metal by cutting away the section in between. Parting dies have two cutting edges which create the opposite ends of the blanks.
The division between the cope and drag on a mold. This division is where the top and bottom half of the mold meet.
A replica of the part or casting that is used to create a negative impression in a mold. Creating a pattern and mold is the initial step in the casting process.
A shearing operation that creates many separate, individual holes in sheet metal. Perforated parts are useful for screens and grates.
A casting process that uses a reusable mold and no pattern. In metal casting, permanent molds are usually made of metal.
Also called punching, a shearing operation that creates a hole in sheet metal. The metal removed to create the hole is scrap.
The permanent distortion of metal due to stress. Plastic deformation occurs after excessive elastic deformation.
Powder metallurgy. A metal shaping process that creates near-net parts from powdered metal. Powder manufacturing, blending, compacting, and sintering are the main steps in PM.
PM. A metal shaping process that creates near-net parts from powdered metal. Powder manufacturing, blending, compacting, and sintering are the main steps in powder metallurgy.
A casting process that creates intricate shapes using an expendable wax pattern and expendable ceramic mold. Precision casting is also called investment casting.
An impression die forging method that does not create flash. Precision forging is also called flashless forging.
Also called piercing, a shearing operation that creates a hole in sheet metal. The metal removed to create the hole is scrap.
An elevated reservoir. In metal casting, metal risers feed extra metal to the cavity to prevent shrinkage voids.
A metal shaping process that uses pressure from a series of contoured rollers to bend metal sheets or strips. Roll forming can create tubes and complex cross sections by gradually bending metal through a number of roll passes.
The channel that connects the sprue to the cavity on a mold. As the molten metal is poured through the sprue, it moves through the runner and fills the mold.
A flakey film that forms on the surface of a metal that has been heated to high temperatures.
The amount of pressure required to force the internal structure of sheet metal to slide against itself and separate.
Cutting sheet metal into smaller sections without forming chips. Punching, notching, blanking, slitting, lancing, nibbling, perforating, and parting are shearing operations.
Flat metal stock that is no greater than 0.25 in. (0.64 cm) thick. Sheet metal is often sheared, bent, or drawn.
A sheet metal forming operation that creates cup-like shapes by forcing a flat blank between a punch and die.
A casting process that uses an expendable sand mold and a reusable metal pattern. Shell mold castings have a better surface finish than green sand castings.
Heating powder metal parts to bond the blended materials and melt off binders and lubricants. Sintering hardens the green compact and is the last main step in manufacturing powder metal parts.
A semi-finished piece of flat, rectangular bulk metal stock. A slab is thicker than a sheet.
A shearing operation that cuts sheet metal into straight strips without forming scrap. Slitting creates thinner strips from a larger sheet.
The tendency of bent metal to return to its original size or dimension after being compressed.
The channel where molten metal enters the mold. At the beginning of the casting process, molten metal is poured into the mold cavity through the sprue.
The reservoir or funnel. In metal atomization, the tundish funnels molten metal into the atomization chamber.
A forging method that compresses a workpiece, decreasing its length and creating a mass at one end. Upset forging is used to shape bolts, and is also called heading or hot heading.