Quality Training


Class Information
Tooling U-SME classes are offered at the beginner, intermediate, and advanced levels. The typical class consists of 12 to 25 lessons and will take approximately one hour to complete.
Class Name:Production System Design and Development 136
Description:This class introduces important factors involved in setting up a production system, such as location analysis, process and equipment selection, testing, and safety and quality standards. Careful planning and design leads to the production of reliable quality goods at a competitive price.
Prerequisites: none
Difficulty:Beginner
Number of Lessons:22
Language:English
 
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Class Outline
  • Objectives
  • Production System Design and Development
  • Plant Location Analysis
  • Facility Layout
  • Types of Facility Layouts
  • Production Environments
  • Production Planning
  • Production Scheduling
  • Material Planning
  • Priority Schemes
  • Assembly Systems
  • Process Documentation
  • Equipment Selection
  • Production System Test
  • Quality Standards
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Workplace Safety
  • Safety Standards
  • Maintenance
  • Environmental Protection
  • Waste Management
  • Summary
  
Class Objectives
  • Describe production systems.
  • Describe the factors that influence plant location.
  • Identify an optimum layout plan.
  • Differentiate between types of facility layouts.
  • Describe basic production environments.
  • Describe levels of planning.
  • Describe the systems used for scheduling production.
  • Explain the types of material planning.
  • Describe various priority schemes.
  • Describe various assembly systems.
  • Describe process documentation.
  • Describe the basic types of machines.
  • Describe tools for testing and evaluating systems.
  • Describe the role of standards organizations.
  • Describe ergonomics.
  • Explain the rules governing workplace safety.
  • Describe common safety standards.
  • Describe approaches to maintenance.
  • Describe environmental protection regulations.
  • Explain the importance of waste management.

Class Vocabulary

Vocabulary TermDefinition
5S A lean production technique with five related S terms of workplace activities that promote organization and efficiency: sorting, straightening, shining, standardizing, and sustaining.
advanced product quality planning APQP. A framework of procedures and techniques to help in the effective planning, design, and development of products especially in the automotive industry. APQP can be applied to any industry.
aggregate planning The process of determining quantity and timing of production for families of products or product lines. It covers six months to a year and is the big picture approach to planning. Also known as intermediate planning.
AIAG Automotive Industry Action Group. A not-for-profit globally recognized organization that develops and improves business processes and practices of the automotive industry. AIAG was founded in 1982 by a group of managers from Chrysler, Ford Motor Co. and General Motors.
American National Standards Institute ANSI. A private, non-profit membership organization that administers and coordinates voluntary standards and systems in the U.S. private sector.
ANSI American National Standards Institute. A private, non-profit membership organization that administers and coordinates voluntary standards and systems in the U.S. private sector.
APQP Advanced product quality planning. A framework of procedures and techniques to help in the effective planning, design, and development of products especially in the automotive industry. APQP can be applied to any industry.
assemble-to-order A production environment where products are assembled from stock components only after an order is received. Key components are stored and the product put together after a customer's order is received.
Automotive Industry Action Group AIAG. A not-for-profit globally recognized organization that develops and improves business processes and practices of the automotive industry. AIAG was founded in 1982 by a group of managers from Chrysler, Ford Motor Co. and General Motors.
CAD Computer-aided design. A computer software program that aids in the automated design and technical precision drawing of a part, product, process, or building.
capacity requirements planning CRP. A computerized system that calculates resource requirements including labor and machine hours to meet the projected demand for products over a specific time period.
carousel Synchronous assembly system in which a series of fixtures or holding devices are attached to a roller chain, precision chain, or steel belts or moved by fingers from one workstation to another.
cell A specialized grouping of people, machines, and materials in a work center in a facility that produces small batches of parts or small batches of a complete item.
cellular layout A facility layout where machines are arranged in a work center in the general order that they are required to produce families of parts or one product family. Also called product-process layout.
Clean Air Act A United States federal law which specifies the standards for air quality and the control of air pollution. Enacted in 1970, the Clean Air Act was amended in 1977 and 1990.
Clean Water Act A United States federal law which protects the surface waters and regulates pollution of waterways. Enacted in 1948, the Clean Water Act has been amended in 1972 and 1977.
CMMS Computerized maintenance management system. A type of management software package that performs functions to support operations and maintenance programs. Facility personnel can track and monitor the status and costs of maintenance work to improve quality, reduce defects, optimize production, and avoid costly downtime.
computer-aided design CAD. A computer software program that aids in the automated design and technical precision drawing of a part, product, process, or building.
computerized maintenance management system CMMS. A type of management software package that performs functions to support operations and maintenance programs. Facility personnel can track and monitor the status and costs of maintenance work to improve quality, reduce defects, optimize production, and avoid costly downtime.
continuous-motion assembly system An assembly system where workpieces and workheads move together at constant speeds, and multiple processes occur uninterrupted. High production rates are possible with this system.
corrective maintenance A maintenance approach that involves fixing equipment only when it breaks down. Corrective maintenance can be costly due to lost time that occurs when machines are tied up with extended repairs.
critical ratio A ratio used to determine priority in a production system. The critical ratio is equal to the due date minus today's date, divided by the lead time remaining.
CRP Capacity requirements planning. A computerized system that calculates resource requirements including labor and machine hours to meet the projected demand for products over a specific time period.
CTD Cumulative trauma disorder. Injury of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems caused by repeated activities, vibrations, mechanical stresses and awkward positions such as tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, rotator cuff injury, and tenosynovitis. Also known as repetitive-motion disorder.
cumulative trauma disorder CTD. Injury of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems caused by repeated activities, vibrations, mechanical stresses and awkward positions such as tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, rotator cuff injury, and tenosynovitis. Also known as repetitive-motion disorder.
dial A synchronous assembly system where workstations and tooling are mounted on a central column or around the periphery of the dial or indexing table. Used for small to medium size parts.
dial assembly system An assembly system designed so that operations are carried out by workstations and tooling that are mounted on a central column or around the periphery of an indexing table. Also called rotary index assembly system.
due date priority rule A priority sequence scheme for processing which uses the date the product is required to be available to determine which job to work on first.
EI Enterprise integration. A highly efficient process that aims at facilitating information, control, and material flow across organizational boundaries. It aims at providing the right information at the right time and place, enabling efficient communication and coordination between people, processes, and technologies.
engineering anthropometry The application of scientific measurement techniques to improve the interaction between people and machines. Careful selection of workplace dimensions eliminates many worker performance problems.
engineer-to-order A production environment where customer specifications for products require unique engineering design or significant customization. Products are designed and created after an order is received.
enterprise integration A highly efficient process that aims at facilitating information, control, and material flow across organizational boundaries. It aims at providing the right information at the right time and place, enabling efficient communication and coordination between people, processes, and technologies.
Environmental Protection Agency EPA. The U.S. federal government agency established in 1970 to establish a cleaner, healthier environment. The EPA carries on federal research, monitoring, standard-setting and enforcement activities to ensure environmental protection.
EPA Environmental Protection Agency. The U.S. federal government agency established in 1970 to establish a cleaner, healthier environment. The EPA carries on federal research, monitoring, standard-setting and enforcement activities to ensure environmental protection.
ergonomics The scientific study of equipment design, workspace arrangement, and the environment to increase operator comfort, safety and productivity. Adhering to certain principles regarding posture, application of force, etc. reduces risks of injuries.
facility planning The planning and design of building structures, both exterior and interior, that support plant activities such as manufacturing. It includes organizing the production area and warehouses, rooms for storage, shipping, receiving, and break rooms in an efficient manner to maximize productivity.
Fast Fourier Transform FFT. A mathematical method used in predictive maintenance which monitors vibration signatures. A Fast Fourier Transform can read signs that indicate when a machine is going to malfunction.
Federal Register The official daily publication for rules, proposals, and notices of federal agencies and organizations, as well as presidential executive orders and documents. It is published by the office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
FFT Fast Fourier Transform. A mathematical method used in predictive maintenance which monitors vibration signatures. An FFT can read signs that indicate when a machine is going to malfunction.
FIFO First-in-first out. FIFO is a priority sequence scheme for processing, in which the first work order to enter a production center is also the first to come out of the system.
first-in-first-out FIFO. A priority sequence scheme for processing in which the first work order to enter a production center is also the first to come out of the system.
fixed layout A facility layout where a product remains stationary, and equipment, workers, and resources are brought to the site to work on it. Also called a station layout.
flexible manufacturing system FMS. An arrangement of versatile, numerically controlled programmable machines and devices that allow equipment to be used for various related purposes, increasing productivity.
FMS Flexible manufacturing system. Consists of numerically controlled programmable machines and devices that are versatile and allow equipment to be used for various related purposes, increasing productivity.
forecasting A prediction of demand patterns for a product, which is used to calculate future inventory levels. Techniques such as mathematical calculations are used to estimate the amount of raw materials to be ordered, etc.
green manufacturing The use of manufacturing technologies that minimize emission of greenhouse gases, use of non-renewable or toxic materials, and waste generation. It saves money and reduces the negative impact of manufacturing processes on the environment.
hazardous waste Any industrial by-product with properties that pose a risk to human health or the environment. Hazardous waste requires special types of storage and disposal to make it harmless or less dangerous.
hazardous waste generator Any entity or person (business, industry, or service, public or private) that first creates or produces a hazardous waste or first brings a hazardous waste into the country. They are classified by waste type or quantity of waste handled.
hybrid layout Facility layout composed of the most useful elements from different layout plans brought together for a particular manufacturing situation. Also called a combined layout.
indexing assembly system An assembly system where several workpieces move at the same time and equidistant from each other. Also called synchronous assembly system.
in-line A synchronous assembly system where workpieces are arranged in a linear pattern. This system can be wrap around (circumferential) or over and under type, or of a conventional transfer-machine type.
inspection report A document that records specific quality data for statistical process control analysis, proof of safety conformance, or verification of regulatory compliance.
inspection sheet A document detailing how to inspect and measure critical quality levels. It could be separate or included in the work instructions.
intermediate planning The process of determining quantity and timing of production for families of products or product lines. It covers six months to a year and is the big picture approach to planning. Also known as aggregate planning.
International Organization for Standardization ISO. A non-governmental organization in Switzerland that develops and establishes standards, rules, and guidelines to ensure that products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose, for its international membership base.
inventory Storage and listing of component parts, products, raw materials and supplies that are either finished, in stock, or in process for meeting customer demands. Lean production aims at having zero inventory, as inventory is considered a waste.
inventory planning Ensures the availability of raw material and finished products when needed along with safety stocks. It matches supply to demand.
ISO The International Organization for Standardization that develops and establishes standards, rules, and guidelines to ensure that products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose.
ISO 9000 A set of standards that define minimum requirements for quality management systems that helps ensure that processes and activities satisfy customer needs.
ISO/TS 16949:2009 An ISO standard, which in conjunction with ISO 9001:2008, defines the quality management system requirements for the design, development, production, installation, and service of automotive-related products.
JIT Just-in-time. A lean approach to production also called zero inventory. Materials and items are ready just in time or precisely when needed, thus reducing or eliminating stock on hand, which is considered waste.
just-in-time JIT. A lean approach to production also called zero inventory. Materials and items are ready just in time or precisely when needed, thus reducing or eliminating stock on hand, which is considered waste.
kanban A Japanese term for "sign." Kanban consists of visual signals such as cards that authorize the production or movement of items in a pull system. It is a technique of lean manufacturing.
lead time The time it takes raw material to enter the plant, flow through production to become a completed product, and be shipped out. It includes wait time. Manufacturers always try to reduce lead time.
lean manufacturing An approach to manufacturing that seeks to improve quality and productivity, reduce cost, and eliminate waste. It was pioneered by Toyota Production Systems.
lockout/tagout LOTO. The common term for OSHA's Standard on the Control of Hazardous Energy. These safety practices protect employees by preventing accidental machine startup through proper locking and labeling of machines during service or maintenance.
long-term planning The process of determining facility location and the products to be manufactured over a period of a few years. These decisions influence aggregate planning.
LOTO Lockout/tagout. A specific safety procedure that isolates a machine from all sources of hazardous energy that might unexpectedly power up the machine during service or maintenance.
machine calibration A check to determine the accuracy of a device by comparing a machine with a known standard to make sure the system is performing to its design capabilities. It is a form of preventive maintenance that reduces potential problems.
machining variable Any adjustable variable that determines how fast an aspect of a particular operation is performed. Machining variables determine the feed rates, the speed of spindle rotation, and other factors that ensure parts are produced as fast as possible while still meeting design specifications.
maintenance Activities for the necessary care and repair of machines such as lubricating, adjusting, and replacement of parts. Maintenance requires time, labor and money but results in savings.
make-to-order A production environment where a product is made to specifications only after receipt of a customer's order. Also known as manufacture-to-order.
make-to-stock A production environment in which items are created in anticipation of demand. Also known as manufacture-to-stock.
manufacture-to-order A production environment where a product is made to specifications only after receipt of a customer's order. Also known as make-to-order, it has a longer lead time than other production environments such as manufacture-to-stock or assemble-to-order.
manufacture-to-stock A production environment in which products are created in anticipation of demand and customers orders. Also known as make-to-stock.
manufacturing resource planning MRP II. A successor to MRP, manufacturing resource planning integrates planning of all aspects of a manufacturing company such as business, production, scheduling, sales, operations, financial management, shop floor control, etc.
manufacturing simulation A computer software program that models or simulates the operation of a manufacturing process or system. Manufacturing simulation tests the efficiency of the system.
master production schedule MPS. A comprehensive schedule that specifies which items are to be made or assembled, when they are needed, and in what quantities.
material planning A scientific way of determining what raw materials are needed, how much is needed and when it is needed, to meet the given production plan for a certain period.
material requirements planning MRP. A computerized inventory management system that calculates the requirement for raw materials and component parts and generates the necessary work and purchase orders.
material safety data sheet MSDS. Mandatory information that must accompany almost every chemical in the workplace and details the risks, precautions, and first aid procedures associated with the chemical.
memo-motion A time and motion study in which a camera using slower speed film captures lengthy operations involving multiple persons and machines. This analysis enables operators to alter and shorten processes.
methods engineering Part of process engineering, a necessary function that ensures that the most efficient methods are being used. Tools used include process charts, spaghetti charts, micro and memo-motion.
micro-motion A tool for methods engineering and work analysis where motion pictures are taken at constant and known speeds. It makes minute analyses of operations that are short in cycle, contain rapid movements, and involve high production over a long period of time.
MPS Master production schedule. A comprehensive schedule that specifies which items are to be made or assembled, when they are needed, and in what quantities.
MRP Material requirements planning. A computerized inventory management system that calculates the requirement for raw materials and component parts and generates the necessary work and purchase orders.
MRP II Manufacturing resource planning II. A successor to MRP, MRP II integrates planning of all aspects of a manufacturing company such as business, production, scheduling, sales, operations, financial management, shop floor control, etc.
MSDS Material safety data sheet. Mandatory information that must accompany almost every chemical in the workplace and details the risks, precautions, and first aid procedures associated with the chemical.
non-synchronous assembly system An assembly system with independently operated individual stations and several free or floating workpieces. This system performs different operations at varying times.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA. A federal government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Labor whose role is to ensure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women through research, information, standards, enforcement, education and training.
operation sheet A document that provides detailed information about the machine to perform a specific operation. Also called the process sheet.
OSH Act Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. A United States Federal law enacted to "assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women" through standards, enforcement, research, information, education, and training. It is administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA is a federal government agency under the U.S. Dept. of Labor. It ensures safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women through research, information, standards, enforcement, education and training.
personal protective equipment PPE. Various safeguarding devices workers use to prevent injury in the workplace. PPE includes safety glasses, gloves, masks, gowns, and earplugs.
plant layout The physical arrangement of equipment, machines, tools, furniture, and workstations within a plant. Choosing the optimum layout can increase efficiency and productivity.
plant location analysis A study of factors involved in choosing a particular location for setting up a plant or factory. Land availability and costs, access to raw materials, suppliers, and markets are some key factors.
PM Preventive maintenance. A maintenance approach that involves performing actions to equipment while it is in working order so that it does not break down. This includes lubricating, tightening, and replacing worn parts.
poka-yoke A Japanese term for "error-proofing." An example of poka-yoke would be a machine designed so that parts can be fixtured only in the correct position.
Pollution Prevention Act A United States federal law aimed at reducing the amount of pollution by changes in production, operation, and use of raw materials and resources. The Pollution Prevention Act was enacted in 1990.
PPAP Production part approval process. The set of standards used in the automotive supply chain for every phase of the planning and production process. PPAP ensures quality and efficiency with regard to part production.
PPE Personal protection equipment. PPE consists of various safeguarding devices that workers use to prevent injury in the workplace. Common examples include safety glasses, gloves, masks, gowns, and earplugs.
predictive maintenance A maintenance approach that involves testing and monitoring machines to predict machine failures, using equipment such as sensors and programmable controllers.
preventive maintenance PM. A maintenance approach that involves performing actions to equipment while it is in working order so that it does not break down. This includes lubricating, tightening, and replacing worn parts.
process capability analysis A procedure that determines the performance level of the process to produce a conforming product. It allows one to quantify how well a process can produce an acceptable product.
process engineering The analysis, adjustment and control of the operation, workflow, and optimization of the manufacturing process. Process engineers may use the help of systematic computer-based methods.
process flow chart A high level, graphical representation of the steps required to complete a manufacturing process for a given component. It includes transportation and storage.
process sheet A document that provides detailed information to enable an operator to work a machine. Also called the operation sheet.
process type layout A facility layout where similar activities are grouped together into work centers according to the process or function they perform.
process validation The means of ensuring and providing evidence that a process can consistently produce the required quality product. It is conducted after installation of equipment and systems.
product acceptance level Specific criteria such as quality standards and performance levels required in a product for it to receive the customer's approval. These are laid out in the work instructions.
product variant A different version of the main product. For example, a shoe may be available in various sizes, colors, styles, and options.
production control plan A document that sets the limits for the process operation, listing specific activities and the variables or risks affecting them. It is developed before production starts.
production part approval process PPAP. The set of standards used in the automotive supply chain for every phase of the planning and production process. PPAP ensures quality and efficiency with regard to part production.
production simulation The imitation of the production process to predict aspects of the system's behavior using physical modelling, or a special purpose computer program.
production system The process, equipment, and operations used in industry to create finished goods from raw materials. Careful planning, efficient design, and coordination is required to successfully produce quality goods economically.
product-process layout A facility layout where families of parts or one product family are produced in a work center or cell using group technology. Also called cellular layout.
pull system A component of the JIT production system, this is a material management system in which components of items are delivered to machines only when needed. It is a part of lean manufacturing and strives to eliminate overproduction.
rate-based material planning A planning method that matches the production rate to the customer demand so that material is ordered as needed. An example of rate-based material planning is the JIT system.
RCCP Rough-cut capacity planning. A rough check that identifies and evaluates the key resources, and tests the feasibility of the supply plan and master production schedule prior to any detailed capacity and material planning.
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This United States federal law, enacted in 1976, provides the framework for the proper management of hazardous and nonhazardous solid waste. RCRA was amended in 1984 and 1986.
reaction plan A list of specific instructions to follow when things go wrong to fix the process. A reaction plan is a part of work instructions.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RCRA. This United States federal law, enacted in 1976, provides the framework for the proper management of hazardous and nonhazardous solid waste. RCRA was amended in 1984 and 1986.
rotary index assembly system An assembly system designed so that workstations and tooling are mounted on a central column or around the periphery of the indexing table. Also called dial assembly system.
rough-cut capacity planning RCCP. A rough check that identifies and evaluates the key resources, and tests the feasibility of the supply plan and master production schedule prior to any detailed capacity and material planning.
routing sheet A document that provides an ordered list of the exact sequence of operations for an item as it moves from machine to machine. It outlines the route for the raw material.
setup instruction The series of tasks which includes preparing machines and collecting paperwork, tools, and materials for processing a product. Setup instructions establish operating parameters and are required for error-proofing the operation.
shop order An alternative term for a work order on the shop floor. It is an internal document authorizing a firm to proceed with the manufacture of a product for a client and incur expenses for the same. It may state the quantity required, raw material to be used, labor required and machines used.
short-term planning The process of determining the day-to-day or weekly schedule of manufacturing activities of a plant and the quantity of materials required.
single-station assembly These consist of machines with a single workstation which are used when a specific operation is repeated on one or a few parts. They are incorporated into multi-station assembly systems.
spaghetti chart A tool for lean process improvement and methods engineering that graphically represents how information, materials and people move on the work floor. A continuous line in the diagram traces the path of a part and helps identify poorly laid out work paths in the process flow, which typically look like a plate of spaghetti.
start date priority rule A priority sequence scheme for processing that begins with the work order with the earliest start date instead of the one that has been received first.
station layout A facility layout where a product remains stationary and equipment, workers, and resources are brought to the site to work on it. Also called a fixed layout.
sustainable Capable of being maintained without any negative impact on the environment. Sustainable manufacturing involves the use of green manufacturing processes that are non-polluting, that conserve energy and resources, and are economically sound and safe for all.
synchronous assembly system An assembly system in which several workpieces or pallets move at the same time and are equidistant from each other. Synchronous assembly systems are available in dial, in line, and carousel varieties and are also called indexing assembly systems.
time-phased planning A schedule of manufacturing activity that is based on timing established by the master production schedule. When based on forecasting, it can build excess inventory.
tooling list A document that provides the description, material, and number of the tools required for a particular operation. Trained workers use it as a supplement to the operation sheet.
visual control A technique of lean manufacturing where the process status is made visible for tracking performance and preventing problems. If an abnormality appears, the worker seeks help or fixes it.
Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 OSH Act. A United States federal law enacted to "assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women" through standards, enforcement, research, information, education, and training. It is administered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
work center A section of a production facility where all tasks associated with a particular operation are performed by one or more people, or machines.
work instruction A document that describes specific and detailed activities and tasks of the equipment operator. These details are not given on the operation or process sheet.
work measurement A process design tool used to analyze a task and then determine the standard time needed to perform an operation efficiently. Benefits include reduced labor costs and increased productivity.
workholding device A device used to support, locate, and hold a workpiece for manufacturing purposes. It ranges from simple vises and clamping kits to microprocessor-controlled fixturing systems.