Abrasives

An abrasive is any tool or material that is used to wear away the surface of a workpiece. Abrasive processes are frequently used to produce the final shape of a part and improve its surface finish. Grinding, honing, and lapping are all common abrasive processes.

These classes will explain all the abrasive processes used to shape and finish parts. The content is for individuals seeking to identify and understand all the various abrasive tools and machines used in the shop. Class content defines the categories of abrasive tools and also describes the application of these tools for more experienced users.


Class Functional Area Format Difficulty Version Department
123
Classes 1 to 10 of 22
Intro to Abrasives 100

This class defines abrasive processes and explains the major groups of abrasive tools.

Machining Online Beginner 1.0 Abrasives
Grinding Processes 201

Grinding Processes provides a comprehensive overview of the various types of grinding used in modern manufacturing environments. Surface, cylindrical, centerless, and internal grinding processes are commonly used for workpieces of various shapes. Surface grinding is further distinguished by whether the ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Grinding Processes 120
Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Grinding Safety 211

Grinding Safety provides an overview of safety concerns and precautions for grinding operations. Grinding machines, wheels, and fluids pose a number of safety hazards, so operators must take proper preventative measures. Wheel guards can protect grinding operators from flying shards ...

Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Basic Grinding Theory 221

Basic Grinding Theory provides an overview of the general process of grinding . Grinding occurs at the point of contact between an abrasive wheel and a workpiece. Like any other cutting process, grinding removes material in the form of chips. ...

Related 1.0 Class:
What Is Grinding? 110
Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Basics of the Surface Grinder 231

The class Basics of the Surface Grinder provides an overview of the components, considerations, and varieties of the surface grinding machine. Surface grinders are classified by their table types and spindle orientations, and vary in levels of automation. Wheels, workholding ...

Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Basics of the Cylindrical Grinder 232

Basics of the Cylindrical Grinder provides a comprehensive introduction to different types and components of cylindrical grinding machines. The main methods of cylindrical grinding are plunge grinding and traverse grinding. The main types of cylindrical grinders are plain, universal, automated, ...

Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Basics of the Centerless Grinder 233

Basics of the Centerless Grinder provides a comprehensive introduction to centerless grinding. Centerless grinding includes both internal and external grinding operations. During centerless grinding, a rotating regulating wheel moves a workpiece, supported by a work rest blade, along a rotating ...

Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Setup for the Surface Grinder 241

Setup for the Surface Grinder provides a comprehensive overview of the steps and considerations involved in setting up a surface grinding machine. Setup includes selecting a grinding wheel, testing and preparing the wheel, selecting the correct workholding and/or fixtures for ...

Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Setup for the Cylindrical Grinder 242

Setup for the Cylindrical Grinder provides a comprehensive overview of the steps and considerations involved in setting up a cylindrical grinding machine. Setting up a cylindrical grinding machine includes selecting a grinding wheel, dressing and truing the wheel, selecting the ...

Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
Setup for the Centerless Grinder 243

Setup for the Centerless Grinder explains how to set up a centerless grinder for typical outer diameter (OD) operations. The class explains the necessary setup for the work rest blade and regulating wheel angle of inclination, as well as the ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Setup for Centerless Grinders 320
Machining Online Intermediate 2.0 Abrasives
FormatFunctional AreaDepartment IDDepartmentClass IDClass NameDescriptionDifficultyVersionLanguageRelated Classes
OnlineMachining250Abrasives250100 Intro to Abrasives 100 This class defines abrasive processes and explains the major groups of abrasive tools.Beginner1.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380110 Grinding Processes 201 Grinding Processes provides a comprehensive overview of the various types of grinding used in modern manufacturing environments. Surface, cylindrical, centerless, and internal grinding processes are commonly used for workpieces of various shapes. Surface grinding is further distinguished by whether the table is rotary or reciprocating, and whether the spindle is vertically or horizontally oriented. Cylindrical grinding is distinguished by workholding, whether center-type or chucking-type. Centerless grinding can be either throughfeed or infeed, and internal grinding can be done on a cylindrical or centerless grinder.A foundational knowledge of the different types of grinding, including how they operate and what types of workpieces they are appropriate for, is necessary for any further learning or training in grinding. This class introduces students to the various types of grinding that they may encounter, describing both machine tools and movements.Intermediate2.0English(250120) Grinding Processes 120
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380120 Grinding Safety 211 Grinding Safety provides an overview of safety concerns and precautions for grinding operations. Grinding machines, wheels, and fluids pose a number of safety hazards, so operators must take proper preventative measures. Wheel guards can protect grinding operators from flying shards in the event of wheel breakage. Personal protective equipment, such as safety glasses, provides another barrier between operators and grinding operations, as do automatic safeguards that are built into many modern machine tools. Ensuring that machines, wheels, and fluids are properly used, maintained, and tested also reduces the rate of accidents.Safety is a primary concern for any manufacturing facility. Manufacturers need to ensure that their employees are safe, that their facilities are OSHA compliant, and that they do not lose valuable productivity due to accidents. After taking this class, grinding operators will know safe grinding practices that prevent workplace injury.Intermediate2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380130 Basic Grinding Theory 221 Basic Grinding Theory provides an overview of the general process of grinding . Grinding occurs at the point of contact between an abrasive wheel and a workpiece. Like any other cutting process, grinding removes material in the form of chips. In order for a wheel to grind properly, its abrasive grains must wear and self-sharpen at a consistent rate. Otherwise, wheel problems such as loading and glazing may occur. Truing and dressing wheels and applying grinding fluids can fix or prevent these issues.An understanding of grinding wheels and processes allows operators to perform grinding operations effectively and recognize and address any grinding wheel problems that may occur. This understanding and recognition will improve the accuracy, precision, and overall success of grinding operations, reducing scrap parts and increasing productivity.Intermediate2.0English(250110) What Is Grinding? 110
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380140 Basics of the Surface Grinder 231 The class Basics of the Surface Grinder provides an overview of the components, considerations, and varieties of the surface grinding machine. Surface grinders are classified by their table types and spindle orientations, and vary in levels of automation. Wheels, workholding devices, and coolant also vary based on the workpiece and grinding operation.Surface grinding is a common operation and is performed when very tight tolerances and surface finishes are required. A surface grinder operator must be familiar with the machine itself, as well as how to select and utilize wheels, workholding, and coolant, in order for the grinding operation to be successful. This foundational knowledge is necessary to reduce scrap, increase quality and production rates, and lower costs.Intermediate2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380144 Basics of the Cylindrical Grinder 232 Basics of the Cylindrical Grinder provides a comprehensive introduction to different types and components of cylindrical grinding machines. The main methods of cylindrical grinding are plunge grinding and traverse grinding. The main types of cylindrical grinders are plain, universal, automated, and limited-purpose. Grinders may also be categorized by their method of workholding and method of control. Grinding wheels, maintenance, coolant, and grinding variables vary based on the operation.Cylindrical grinding is a common operation performed to finish parts and bring them to tolerance. A cylindrical grinder operator must be familiar with the machine itself, as well as how to select and utilize wheels, workholding, and coolant, in order for the grinding operation to be successful. This foundational knowledge is necessary to reduce scrap, increase quality and production rates, and lower costs.Intermediate2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380148 Basics of the Centerless Grinder 233 Basics of the Centerless Grinder provides a comprehensive introduction to centerless grinding. Centerless grinding includes both internal and external grinding operations. During centerless grinding, a rotating regulating wheel moves a workpiece, supported by a work rest blade, along a rotating grinding wheel. This abrasive process removes a layer of material from the surface of the workpiece. Its cutting variables include wheel speed, spindle speed, surface or work speed, and feed rate. During throughfeed and endfeed grinding, workpieces move along the length of the grinding wheel, while infeed grinding pushes a shaped workpiece into the grinding wheel.Centerless grinding produces accurate parts with improved surface finish. An operator cannot use a centerless grinder without understanding how the machine functions. After this class, users should be able to describe the general machine components, controls, and basic function of a centerless grinder.Intermediate2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380150 Setup for the Surface Grinder 241 Setup for the Surface Grinder provides a comprehensive overview of the steps and considerations involved in setting up a surface grinding machine. Setup includes selecting a grinding wheel, testing and preparing the wheel, selecting the correct workholding and/or fixtures for the operation, mounting the workpiece, and setting cutting variables.Setup is integral to achieving an accurate, precise grinding operation. If any step in the setup process is not performed properly, the entire operation may be compromised, leading to a part that is out of tolerance and must be scrapped. An understanding of how to correctly and efficiently set up a surface grinding operation is necessary for increasing part quality and production rates while decreasing scrap.Intermediate2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380154 Setup for the Cylindrical Grinder 242 Setup for the Cylindrical Grinder provides a comprehensive overview of the steps and considerations involved in setting up a cylindrical grinding machine. Setting up a cylindrical grinding machine includes selecting a grinding wheel, dressing and truing the wheel, selecting the correct workholding and/or fixtures for the operation, mounting the workpiece, setting grinding variables, and ensuring workpiece alignment.Setup is integral to an accurate, precise grinding operation. If any step in the setup process is not performed properly, the entire operation may be compromised, leading to a part that is out of tolerance and must be scrapped. An understanding of how to correctly and efficiently set up a cylindrical grinding operation is necessary for increasing part quality and production rates while decreasing scrap.Intermediate2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380158 Setup for the Centerless Grinder 243 Setup for the Centerless Grinder explains how to set up a centerless grinder for typical outer diameter (OD) operations. The class explains the necessary setup for the work rest blade and regulating wheel angle of inclination, as well as the methods for selecting and mounting a grinding wheel. The class also explains the proper truing and dressing procedure for both the grinding and regulating wheel.Centerless grinding results in close tolerances but only if the machine is properly set up for the operation. After taking this class, users will be able to describe the steps required to set up a centerless grinder for routine OD grinding of a cylindrical part.Intermediate2.0English(250320) Setup for Centerless Grinders 320
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380160 Surface Grinder Operation 251 The class Surface Grinder Operation provides step-by-step guidelines on how to grind a rectangular workpiece. Grinding each side of a workpiece requires wheel dressing and other preparatory steps, and then roughing and finishing passes. Workpiece sides are numbered from 1 to 6 in order to track which sides must be ground perpendicular or parallel to one another. Some workpieces require special considerations, such as mounting on an angle plate or grinding at an angle.In order to perform successful surface grinding operations, operators must have a solid foundational knowledge of proper grinding methods. This class provides the practical steps and considerations for surface grinding a part from start to finish, which gives operators an understanding of grinding before ever turning on the machine. This will speed up the time it takes for new operators to learn surface grinding, and reduce user errors.Intermediate2.0English(250240) Surface Grinder Operation 240
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380164 Cylindrical Grinder Operation 252 Cylindrical Grinder Operation provides a detailed overview of the steps needed to perform the various types of operations possible on a cylindrical grinder. Operations performed on the cylindrical grinder include plunge, traverse, center-type, chucking-type, ID, profile, and taper grinding. Different steps and considerations must be taken in order to perform each type of operation, including setting the grinding variables and using the appropriate machine components and controls.In order to perform successful cylindrical grinding operations, operators must have a solid foundational knowledge of proper grinding methods. This class provides the practical steps and considerations for cylindrical grinding various workpieces from start to finish, which gives operators an understanding of grinding before ever turning on the machine.Intermediate2.0English(250250) Cylindrical Grinder Operation 250
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380168 Centerless Grinder Operation 253 Centerless Grinder Operation explains the basic procedures required to properly operate a centerless grinder. To avoid lobing and increase workpiece roundness, a centerless grinder should have the correct workpiece rotational speed, as well as an accurately positioned work rest blade, work guides, and workpiece centerline relative to the wheel centerline.Every centerless grinder has roughly the same structure, and understanding that structure and its required procedures allows operators to grind tightly toleranced parts with accuracy, safety, and speed. After taking this class, the user should be able to describe safe and effective operation of a centerless grinder.Intermediate2.0English(250260) Centerless Grinder Operation 260
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380170 Introduction to Grinding Fluids 261 Introduction to Grinding Fluids provides an overview of the uses, types, and selection considerations of grinding fluids, or coolants, used in various machining operations. Appropriate grinding fluid use depends on the type of operation, machine tool, and combination of tool and workpiece materials. The basic types of grinding fluids include various combinations of oils, water, chemicals, and additives, and are classified by their contents. The class describes each category of fluid, its optimal uses, benefits, and drawbacks, as well as ideal delivery methods, maintenance, and basic fluid safety and disposal.Selecting, using, and maintaining the appropriate grinding fluid is a key factor in the success of a grinding operation. Proper coolant application can optimize wheel performance and improve finished parts, reducing scrap and tool cost. Additionally, awareness of grinding fluid hazards and maintenance can increase workplace safety and reduce coolant costs.Intermediate2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380205 Grinding Variables 301 Grinding Variables provides a detailed overview of the different variables involved in any given grinding operation. The parameters of any grinding operation, including tolerances and surface finish, guide the variables of the operation. Variables that can affect the operation's outcome include wheel and workpiece materials, the G-Ratio, the effects of heat and grinding fluid, and the various applicable speeds and feeds.It is crucial that grinding machine operators are aware of how to adjust variables to meet specifications. Adjusting any one variable affects all others, and an incorrect variable can be the difference between a successful grinding operation and a scrapped part. Understanding grinding variables and their impact is essential to reducing manufacturing costs and increasing quality.Advanced2.0English(250200) Grinding Variables 200
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380210 Grinding Ferrous Metals 311 Grinding Ferrous Metals provides an in-depth overview of the considerations involved with grinding various ferrous metal workpiece materials. Ferrous metals’ properties vary widely. This class discusses the properties of cast irons, carbon steel, alloy steels, stainless steels, tool steels, and superalloys, and how those properties affect decisions such as abrasive wheel material, coolant usage, and grinding variables.Ferrous metals are the most commonly ground workpiece material. It is crucial for operators to be familiar not only with the properties of the metals themselves but also with how those properties affect a grinding operation. This class provides operators with knowledge of how to grind ferrous metals successfully, and what potential problems to anticipate and check for within the grinding operation.Advanced2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380215 Grinding Nonferrous Materials 321 The class Grinding Nonferrous Materials provides an in-depth overview of the considerations for grinding nonferrous workpiece materials. Nonferrous materials vary widely in their composition and properties, and thus vary in the methods used to grind them. This class discusses the properties of nonferrous metals, including aluminum, nickel, and titanium, as well as nonmetals such as carbide, ceramics, and composites. Properties of workpiece materials affect decisions such as abrasive wheel material and grinding variables.Nonferrous materials pose unique challenges in grinding. It is crucial for operators to be familiar with the properties of the materials themselves and how those properties affect a grinding operation. This class will provide operators with the knowledge necessary to grind nonferrous workpiece materials successfully, and what potential problems to anticipate and check for within the grinding operation.Advanced2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380220 Grinding Wheel Materials 331 Grinding Wheel Materials provides a detailed overview of the various abrasive and bond materials used in grinding wheels. The properties of the abrasive grains and bond material are important factors in any grinding operation. Abrasives vary not only in type but also in size, hardness, and friability. Bond material can vary in porosity, strength, and amount. These materials, when combined, can greatly affect material removal rates and surface finish. Grinding Wheel Materials details various abrasive and bond properties, in addition to superabrasives and ANSI nomenclature.When undertaking a grinding operation, the ability to select the correct grinding wheel is crucial to a successful outcome. The wrong grinding wheel can slow production, ruin surface finish, or otherwise fail to create a usable part. A working knowledge of grinding wheel materials will help to ensure high quality, high productivity, and low scrap rates.Advanced2.0English(250210) Grinding Wheel Materials 210
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380240 Dressing and Truing 341 Dressing and Truing provides a guide to performing necessary grinding wheel preparations. Prior to using a grinding wheel, operators must visually inspect the wheel and perform a ring test to check for cracks, and then safely mount, true, balance, and dress the wheel. Each process has specific guidelines or goals, and each step is vital to the success of a grinding operation.To perform dressing and truing properly, operators must first understand the wheel preparation process and its overall purpose. Mounting, truing, balancing, and dressing are crucial to the performance of the grinding wheel and to part quality. Improper dressing or truing can lead to poor surface finish, improper tolerances, scrapped parts, and wheel failure.Advanced2.0English(250230) Dressing and Truing 230
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380260 Grinding Wheel Selection 351 Grinding Wheel Selection provides a guide on selecting the ideal grinding wheel from a grinding wheel manufacturer's catalog. Grinding wheel manufacturers list various specifications for grinding wheels, including workpiece compatibility, wheel type, wheel dimensions, abrasive material, bond material, grade, grain size, and maximum safe wheel speed. Some specifications, such as wheel type, are selected according to the grinding process. Other aspects of a grinding wheel, such as grain size and wheel structure, depend on workpiece material and the desired grinding results, including tolerance and surface finish.Selecting the most effective and economical grinding wheel requires a detailed knowledge of each aspect of the wheel and an understanding of the specifications needed to meet the requirements of a grinding operation. An incorrect or incompatible grinding wheel can lead to scrapped parts, damaged wheels or machines, and wasted time and money.Advanced2.0English
OnlineMachining250Abrasives380230 Grinding Wheel Geometry 361 Grinding Wheel Geometry provides an overview of common grinding wheel geometries according to American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. ANSI standards provide a common language for grinding wheels, including letter designations for each part of the wheel, as well as guidelines for wheel design and usage. Most grinding wheels are one of eight basic types that are variations of straight and cup wheels. The variations come from different wheel features, such as reliefs and recesses, which make them suitable for grinding different part shapes.Selecting and using the best grinding wheel for an operation requires an understanding of wheel geometry. After taking this class, users should be able to describe common wheel geometries and the applications appropriate for each.Advanced2.0English(250220) Grinding Wheel Geometry 220
Instructor-LedMachining250Abrasives918110 Modern Grinding Technology This course will acquaint participants with modern day grinding processes and practices. Using real world production situations, the course dispels the myths of grinding and provides an easily understood and comprehensive view of the abrasive machining process technology available for today and tomorrow's industry. This course will equip participants with the necessary understanding to choose abrasive type, grinding wheel grade, the dressing system and process parameters with guidelines on what to look for when purchasing a grinding machine or what to expect when using one of given design.For those who have hands-on experience, this course will challenge participants to understand the process theory thoroughly and adopt a different, more comfortable, attitude toward the technology. For those with little to no experience in grinding, this course will open up a whole new world of machining technology. Participants will complete the course with the knowledge that grinding is a powerful process directly aimed at the next generations of materials and the demands of a precision material removal industry.  English