Inspection

Inspection is the measurement of parts to ensure that they conform to specifications. Often, measurements smaller than the width of a human hair determine if a part is “good” or “bad.” Inspection activities ensure that the part is a quality part that meets the needs of the customer.

These classes address the methods and instruments used to effectively inspect parts in the shop. The content is for individuals seeking to learn the fundamental approaches for inspection and the most common instruments. The content of these classes starts with instruments such as the caliper, micrometer, and CMM and eventually addresses calibration and more advanced inspection methods.


Class Functional Area Format Difficulty Version Department
12
Classes 1 to 10 of 20
Basic Measurement 101

The class Basic Measurement offers an overview of common gaging and variable inspection tools and methods. Variable inspection takes a specific measurement using common devices such as calipers and micrometers. The sensitivity of the instrument must be greater than the ...

Related 1.0 Classes:
Basic Measurement 110
Linear Instrument Characteristics 115
Foundational Online Beginner 2.0 Inspection
Calibration Fundamentals 111

The class Calibration Fundamentals provides a basic introduction to the importance of calibrating measuring instruments. Calibration determines the accuracy of measuring instruments by comparing its value to a higher-level measurement standard, usually a working standard gage block. Measurement standards follow ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Calibration Fundamentals 210
Foundational Online Beginner 2.0 Inspection
Basics of Tolerance 121

Basics of Tolerance provides a comprehensive overview on part tolerancing, including different types of tolerances and the relationship between tolerances and part dimensions. Every manufactured part must meet certain specifications. Tolerances describe the range of acceptable measurements in which a ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Basics of Tolerance 120
Foundational Online Beginner 2.0 Inspection
Blueprint Reading 131

The class Blueprint Reading provides a thorough understanding of blueprints and how to read them. Blueprints are documents that contain three major elements: the drawing, dimensions, and notes. The drawing illustrates the views of the part necessary to show its ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Blueprint Reading 130
Foundational Online Beginner 2.0 Inspection
Hole Standards and Inspection 141

The class Hole Standards and Inspection provides a comprehensive introduction to hole inspection using contact instruments. Hole inspection ensures that a hole will meet its proper job specifications, including fit, diameter, roundness, and condition. Gaging instruments, like pin and plug ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Hole Inspection 240
Foundational Online Beginner 2.0 Inspection
Thread Standards and Inspection 151

Thread Standards and Inspection explains the various parts of threads and how to inspect them. Manufacturers inspect threads according to unified or ISO standards or using System 21, System 22, and System 23. Several features must be checked to make ...

Related 1.0 Classes:
Overview of Threads 150
Thread Inspection 250
Foundational Online Beginner 2.0 Inspection
Surface Texture and Inspection 201

The class Surface Texture and Inspection provides information on surface finish and methods involved for its inspection. The surface finish achieved by a machining process determines how well a surface performs its given function. Surface inspection compares the specified nominal ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Surface Measurement 140
Foundational Online Intermediate 2.0 Inspection
Measuring System Analysis 300

This class explains the purpose and methods of measuring systems analysis, including measurement variation and gage repeatability and reproducibility studies.

Foundational Online Advanced 1.0 Inspection
Introduction to GD&T 301

Introduction to GD&T provides a basic introduction to the symbols and vocabulary of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, or GD&T. GD&T is an international design standard that uses 14 standard geometric tolerances to control the shape of features. GD&T emphasizes the ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Intro to GD&T 205 (2009)
Foundational Online Advanced 2.0 Inspection
Major Rules of GD&T 311

The class Major Rules of GD&T provides an overview of the rules and concepts of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, or GD&T, including Rule #1, Rule #2, bonus tolerance, the 3-2-1 Rule, and virtual and resultant conditions, as well as the ...

Related 1.0 Class:
Interpreting GD&T 315 (2009)
Foundational Online Advanced 2.0 Inspection
FormatFunctional AreaDepartment IDDepartmentClass IDClass NameDescriptionDifficultyVersionLanguageRelated Classes
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140010 Basic Measurement 101 The class Basic Measurement offers an overview of common gaging and variable inspection tools and methods. Variable inspection takes a specific measurement using common devices such as calipers and micrometers. The sensitivity of the instrument must be greater than the measurement being taken. Both calipers and micrometers are read by finding the alignments in lines on the devices. Gages, such as gage blocks, plug gages, ring gages, and thread gages, reveal whether a dimension is acceptable or unacceptable without a specific quantity. All inspection devices should be properly mastered and maintained to retain accuracy. One of the fundamental activities of any shop is the measurement of part features. Consistent measurement and inspection maintains standardization and ensures that out-of-tolerance parts do not reach customers. After taking this class, users should be able to describe the use and care of common inspection instruments and gages used in the production environment.Beginner2.0English(350110) Basic Measurement 110; (350115) Linear Instrument Characteristics 115
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140020 Calibration Fundamentals 111 The class Calibration Fundamentals provides a basic introduction to the importance of calibrating measuring instruments. Calibration determines the accuracy of measuring instruments by comparing its value to a higher-level measurement standard, usually a working standard gage block. Measurement standards follow a hierarchy consisting of primary, secondary, and working standards. Traceability links these standards together. Measurement uncertainty estimates the accuracy of a measurement. It is the range in which the true value of a measurement is expected to lie. High-accuracy parts require tight tolerances. Tighter tolerances require higher-accuracy measuring instruments. While uncertainty and error exists in every measurement, careful calibration can help to minimize inaccuracy when inspecting parts with measuring instruments. After taking this class, users should be able to explain how calibration and traceability impact the use and care of inspection devices.Beginner2.0English(350210) Calibration Fundamentals 210
OnlineFoundational350Inspection120030 Basics of Tolerance 121 Basics of Tolerance provides a comprehensive overview on part tolerancing, including different types of tolerances and the relationship between tolerances and part dimensions. Every manufactured part must meet certain specifications. Tolerances describe the range of acceptable measurements in which a part can still perform its intended function. Tolerance ranges typically describe a linear measurement. Surface texture can require a certain tolerance as well. Tolerances attempt to balance the use of a product with the cost required to produce that product.Improper tolerancing can result in parts that do not function in the way they were intended or parts produced with dimensions that are more precise than necessary, adding unwanted cost to production. After the class, users will be able to describe common methods used for part tolerancing, as well as the impact tolerances have on part production and quality.Beginner2.0English(800120) Basics of Tolerance 120
OnlineFoundational350Inspection120035 Blueprint Reading 131 The class Blueprint Reading provides a thorough understanding of blueprints and how to read them. Blueprints are documents that contain three major elements: the drawing, dimensions, and notes. The drawing illustrates the views of the part necessary to show its features. Together, the extension and dimension lines on the drawing indicate dimensions and specific tolerance information of each feature. The notes contain administrative and global information about the part. A blueprint contains all instructions and requirements necessary to manufacture and inspect a part.An understanding of how to read a blueprint is critical to manufacture and inspect parts to accurate specifications. Accurate blueprint creation helps to ensure that finished parts will function in a way that meets the original intent. After taking this class, users should be able to read a basic blueprint and determine the critical features on a part that need to be measured.Beginner2.0English(800130) Blueprint Reading 130
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140030 Hole Standards and Inspection 141 The class Hole Standards and Inspection provides a comprehensive introduction to hole inspection using contact instruments. Hole inspection ensures that a hole will meet its proper job specifications, including fit, diameter, roundness, and condition. Gaging instruments, like pin and plug gages, determine fit. Variable instruments determine size and must make three points of contact to find out-of-round conditions. Variable instruments may be mechanical, electronic, optical, or pneumatic. More complex handheld devices include telescoping gages, split-ball gages, calipers, inside micrometers, and bore gages. Job specifications, environmental concerns, and economic issues all determine which hole inspection device to use. Choosing the wrong tool could result in an out-of-tolerance hole passing inspection. After taking this class, users should be able to explain how to measure common hole features with plug gages, pin gages, and calipers and verify they are within tolerance.Beginner2.0English(350240) Hole Inspection 240
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140040 Thread Standards and Inspection 151 Thread Standards and Inspection explains the various parts of threads and how to inspect them. Manufacturers inspect threads according to unified or ISO standards or using System 21, System 22, and System 23. Several features must be checked to make sure that threads meet specifications. Gaging inspection tools, or go/no-go gages, simply determine whether or not a part will fit. Variable thread inspection tools determine whether a thread falls within a specified tolerance range. Thread type and specifications affect the tools used to inspect threads.Understanding the various components and classifications used to identify threads is critical for accurate inspection. After the class, the user will be able to explain how to measure common threaded features with internal and external thread gages and verify the features are within tolerance.Beginner2.0English(350150) Overview of Threads 150; (350250) Thread Inspection 250
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140110 Surface Texture and Inspection 201 The class Surface Texture and Inspection provides information on surface finish and methods involved for its inspection. The surface finish achieved by a machining process determines how well a surface performs its given function. Surface inspection compares the specified nominal surface and real surface to find the measured surface. Measurement can be completed by comparison, direct measurement with a stylus-type instrument, or noncontact methods. A real surface contains irregularities (flaws, roughness, waviness, and lay) that make up its surface texture. Roughness is the most common irregularity used to inspect surfaces. The desired finish of a surface changes how precisely a part must be machined. Inspecting for surface roughness reduces the cost of surface finish by allowing companies to produce parts to customer specifications. After the class, users should be able to describe commonly used methods for tolerancing a part's surface roughness in a production environment.Intermediate2.0English(350140) Surface Measurement 140
OnlineFoundational350Inspection350300 Measuring System Analysis 300 This class explains the purpose and methods of measuring systems analysis, including measurement variation and gage repeatability and reproducibility studies.Advanced1.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140210 Introduction to GD&T 301 Introduction to GD&T provides a basic introduction to the symbols and vocabulary of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, or GD&T. GD&T is an international design standard that uses 14 standard geometric tolerances to control the shape of features. GD&T emphasizes the fit, form, and function of a part by comparing the physical features of the part to the imaginary datums specified in the design instructions. Every part feature is described by a series of symbols, which are organized in the feature control frame.Because GD&T uses tolerance zones that more accurately follow the shape of a feature rather than a square grid and emphasizes the relationship between features, blueprints usually utilitize GD&T to describe parts. This means that to fully understand a blueprint, it is necessary to know the GD&T symbols and what they mean. After taking this class, users should be able to better understand the symbols commonly used in a GD&T print.Advanced2.0English(350205) Intro to GD&T 205 (2009)
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140215 Major Rules of GD&T 311 The class Major Rules of GD&T provides an overview of the rules and concepts of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, or GD&T, including Rule #1, Rule #2, bonus tolerance, the 3-2-1 Rule, and virtual and resultant conditions, as well as the datum reference frame (DRF). The DRF limits all six degrees of freedom by mapping three perpendicular planes onto the part using datum feature simulators. GD&T standards offer specific guidelines on a wide range of part features, including projected tolerance zones, radii, controlled radii, tapers, threads, and gears. Special rules also apply for composite or single segment tolerancing and statistical tolerancing. GD&T functions as a complex language used in blueprints to convey all necessary information about a part. To accurately read a GD&T print, the student must understand its many guidelines. After taking this class, users should be able to explain key GD&T concepts and various approaches for situating a part within the DRF.Advanced2.0English(350315) Interpreting GD&T 315 (2009)
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140216 GD&T Applications 312 Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T) is a language used in part drawings and prints to convey all necessary information about a part. GD&T Applications provides an overview of how to interpret a part's tolerances with GD&T. Users must be familiar with basic symbols, rules, and principles of GD&T, including the datum system, to properly interpret tolerances. It is also important to understand how the assembly of a part influences its design, and how the accurate interpretation of tolerances informs inspection of a part.After taking the class, users will better understand how to interpret a feature control frame for various form, profile, orientation, location, and runout tolerances, and how to apply those tolerances to part creation and inspection.Advanced2.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140220 Inspecting a Prismatic Part 321 Inspecting a Prismatic Part explains the measurements, methods, and inspection tools necessary to confirm that a prismatic part meets its specifications. A number of instruments have the right amount of sensitivity required to inspect most prismatic parts, but a CMM is often the most accurate. Inspection starts by measuring each size dimension in two ways: the cross-sectional dimension, or actual local size, and, sometimes, the actual mating envelope (AME). Prismatic parts are also routinely inspected for certain geometric tolerances, including straightness, flatness, profile of a line, profile of a surface, angularity, perpendicularity, parallelism, and position.The ways in which a part must be inspected is based largely upon its shape, so proper inspection of a prismatic part requires an understanding of its basic dimensions and tolerances. After taking this class, users will be able to describe best practices for inspecting the complete layout of a prismatic part.Advanced2.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140225 Inspecting a Cylindrical Part 331 Inspecting a Cylindrical Part explains the measurements, methods, and inspection tools necessary to confirm that a cylindrical part meets its specifications. A number of instruments have the right amount of sensitivity required to inspect most cylindrical parts, but a CMM is often the most accurate. Inspection starts by measuring each size dimension in two ways: the cross-sectional dimension, or actual local size, at one location along the part and the actual mating envelope (AME) along the part’s entire length. Cylindrical parts are also routinely inspected for certain geometric tolerances.The ways in which a part must be inspected is based largely upon its shape. Thus proper inspection of a cylindrical part requires an understanding of its basic dimensions and tolerances. After the class users should be able to describe best practices for inspecting the complete layout of a cylindrical part.Advanced2.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140230 Advanced Hole Inspection 341 Advanced Hole Inspection provides an overview of hole inspection using noncontact instruments. Holes that require a specific type of fit, either clearance, interference, or transition, also require a higher degree of accuracy. Noncontact hole inspection devices provide this, as well as an ability to measure fragile parts and high volumes of parts. These more sophisticated variable hole inspection devices include coordinate measuring machines, measuring microscopes, optical comparators, borescopes, laser systems, and air gages.Job specifications, part dimensions, and feature size all determine which hole inspection device to use on holes requiring a certain fit. Choosing a tool without a high degree of accuracy could result in an out-of-tolerance hole passing inspection. After taking this class, users will be able to describe advanced methods for inspecting hole dimensions and geometric features in a lab setting.Advanced2.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140240 Inspecting with Optical Comparators 351 Inspecting with Optical Comparators provides an overview of the optical comparator, which uses optics to project an enlarged, two-dimensional shadow of a part onto a glass screen for measurement of its length, width, and surface. Simple optics display the part upside down and backwards. Corrected optics display the part right side up and backwards. Fully corrected optics yield an image identical to the part orientation. Regardless of type and complexity, all optical comparators measure by comparison, screen rotation, and motion.If optical comparators are properly maintained, measurement error is the result of the operator. By understanding the components and measurement methods of the optical comparator, operators can avoid unwanted variation. Variation in measurement can lead to faulty parts passing inspection and reaching consumers. After completing the class, users will be able to describe best practices for using the optical comparator to inspect parts.Advanced2.0English(350130) Basics of the Optical Comparator 130; (350230) Inspecting with Optical Comparators 230
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140250 Inspecting with CMMs 361 Inspecting with CMMs provides a comprehensive overview of the functions and mechanics of the coordinate measuring machine, or CMM. A CMM’s probe contacts the various features on a workpiece and records their Cartesian coordinate locations with software. CMMs measure using either contact or noncontact methods and can be used in a lab or on the production floor. CMMs use either manual operation, joystick, or DCC to guide components.As long as the operator is trained in its use, the CMM provides high accuracy measurements with minimum human influence in a very short amount of time. This allows the operator to respond to machining errors and reduce scrap. After this class, users should be able to describe best practices for using the CMM to inspect parts.Advanced2.0English(350120) Basics of the CMM 120; (350220) Inspecting with CMMs 220
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140260 Calibration and Documentation 371 Calibration and Documentation details the calibration of measuring instruments and its necessary documentation. Calibration should occur at regular intervals. Companies should have a written document that defines their calibration procedures. Calibration records and reports ensure that traceability is intact. This documentation proves that measurements are accurate. The required accuracy of the measuring instrument determines in-house or outside calibration. Without traceability, there is no way to ensure that a measurement made by an inspection device is accurate.Calibration and documentation reduce waste and increase part accuracy, which in turn increases customer satisfaction. After taking the class, users should be able to describe best practices for instrument and gage calibration, along with correct documentation of calibration efforts.Advanced2.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection140270 In-Line Inspection Applications 381 In-Line Inspection Applications offers an in-depth look at the uses of in-line inspection, or error-proofing, in a production environment. Error-proofing uses individualized setups to inspect a part while it is still in production. Gage selection for in-line inspection depends on variables such as part type, production specifics, environment, and process control needs. Possible gaging options include limit or proximity switches, counters or timers, photoelectric or laser sensors, air gages, machine vision systems, and ultrasonic systems. In-line inspection is only feasible if it can be done with repeatability and accuracy.Inspection of parts during production, instead of after it is complete, allows a company to prevent errors before they occur and reach customers. After taking the class, users should be able to describe the various methods for incorporating in-line inspection into an established production process.Advanced2.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection350200 Intro to GD&T 200 (1994) This class introduces the fundamental concepts of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) and describes the main types of tolerances included in the standard. This class references the 1994 standard. Includes an Interactive Lab.Intermediate1.0English
OnlineFoundational350Inspection350310 Interpreting GD&T 310 (1994) This class explains important rules of GD&T and also describes how common features are specified in GD&T prints. This class references the 1994 standard. Includes an Interactive Lab.Advanced1.0English