# NIMS Core Lathe Programming and Setup Skills 232

“NIMS Core Lathe Programming and Setup Skills 231” covers skills necessary for the CNC Turning: Programming, Setup, and Operations competency within the NIMS Level 1 Machining standard. This course covers how to calculate, setup, and program a computer numerical control (CNC) machine for different operations performed on the lathe.

Taking this course in conjunction with the other listed requirements for the NIMS Level 1 Machining standard will prepare users for certification in CNC Turning: Programming, Setup, and Operations.

details Other tabs

## Class Details

Class Name:
NIMS Core Lathe Programming and Setup Skills 232
Difficulty:
Intermediate
Number of Lessons:
25

## Class Outline

• Calculating Toolpaths and Coordinates for the Lathe
• Trigonometric Ratios
• Sine, Cosine, and Tangent
• Types of Canned Cycles
• Basic Turning Cycles
• Arc Programming
• Calculating a Full Arc
• Programming an Arc Motion
• Partial Arcs
• Partial Arc Start Calculations
• Partial Arc End Calculations
• Multiple Repetitive Cycles
• Rough Profile Turning
• Finish Turning and Facing
• Drilling Calculations
• Holemaking Cycles
• Drilling
• Drilling with Dwell
• Peck Drilling
• Drilling Cycle Codes
• Tapping
• Boring and Reaming
• Tool Movements
• Holemaking Canned Cycles

## Objectives

• Describe CNC lathe toolpaths and coordinates.
• Describe sine, cosine, and tangent.
• Describe canned cycles.
• Describe basic turning and facing canned cycles.
• Describe programming for partial or full arcs.
• Explain how to find the coordinates for the center of a full arc.
• Describe the G codes required to program an arc motion.
• Explain how to calculate the coordinates for turning the start of a partial arc.
• Explain how to calculate the coordinates for turning the end of a partial arc.
• Describe multiple repetitive contour turning and facing canned cycles.
• Describe a multiple repetitive profile turning canned cycle.
• Describe how a finishing canned cycle is used with multiple repetitive cycles.
• Describe a multiple repetitive threading canned cycle.
• Explain how to use right triangles to calculate drilling dimensions.
• Describe general tool movements for holemaking canned cycles.
• Describe a drilling canned cycle.
• Describe a drilling canned cycle with dwell.
• Describe peck drilling canned cycles.
• Describe tapping canned cycles.
• Describe boring and reaming canned cycles.

## Certifications

NIMS
• CNC Turning: Programming, Setup, and Operations-FastTrack

## Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
adjacent The side next to the reference angle in a right triangle. The adjacent side cannot be the hypotenuse.
axes Imaginary lines that pass through the center of a point or object. Axes are used to describe the positions of objects on the Cartesian coordinate system.
bar stock Raw material sold in the form of long bars. Bar stock can be round, square, or hexagonal.
block A single line of a part program. Blocks are composed of words and written in G code programming.
boring The process of enlarging an existing hole with a single-point tool. Boring is performed to improve the surface finish and concentricity of a hole.
canned cycles A predetermined machining sequence used to simplify programming. A canned cycle sequence is initiated by a single G code.
Cartesian coordinate system A system of numerically locating points in three-dimensional space. CNC machines use the Cartesian coordinate system to locate the tool tip and map the dimensions of a workpiece.
castings A workpiece formed by melting various raw materials, pouring them into a mold or cavity, and removing the workpiece once the materials have cooled and solidified. Castings are often similar to their desired final shape and require profile turning rather than straight turning operations.
centerline An imaginary line that bisects an object into two equal halves. The centerline of a drill is used to divide its tip into two equal right triangles.
centerline An imaginary line that runs through the center of an object or divides a shape into two equal halves. The centerline is the axis along which a part rotates on a CNC lathe.
chamfers An angled edge around the end of a cylindrical workpiece or the entrance of a hole. Chamfers can be machined using a multiple repetitive cycle.
chips An unwanted piece of metal that is removed from a workpiece. Chips are formed when a tool cuts or grinds metal.
chuck A device that holds a workpiece in place as it rotates on a CNC lathe. A chuck commonly has three or four jaws that can be adjusted to fit variously sized parts.
circular interpolation The toolpath required to create a circular or partially circular part. Circular interpolation necessitates simultaneous movement on at least two axes.
clearance plane The safe distance for rapid tool movement from one operation to the next. A clearance plane is specified by an R level.
CNC lathe A lathe that is controlled by a computer running programs driven by numerical data. CNC lathes are much more precise than their manual counterparts.
CNC lathes A machine that uses computerized numerical data to control workpiece rotation and cutting tool movements for the machining of cylindrical parts. CNC lathes are precise and versatile.
complementary Two angles that, when added together, measure exactly 90 degrees. For example, angles measuring 52° and 38° are complementary angles.
computer numerical control CNC. A computerized system used to control a mill, lathe, or turning center. Computer numerical control machines are much more precise than their manual counterparts.
computer numerical control CNC. A self-contained system of computers and precision motors that executes program instructions to guide machine tool components and manufacture parts. CNC machines use part programs to control the cutting operations required to create a part.
concentricity A geometric tolerance that ensures that the median points of a cylindrical feature are within a specified distance of the feature's sides. Concentricity of a hole improves when the hole is reamed or bored with the G85 canned cycle.
contours A curved or complex shape on a workpiece surface. Contours can be machined using a multiple repetitive cycle.
cosine The ratio of the length of the side adjacent to the angle divided by the hypotenuse. Cosine is often written as cos.
counterboring A holemaking operation that enlarges one end of a previously drilled hole to a certain depth. Counterboring allows room for the head of a screw or nut.
cutting fluid Any fluid used to cool, lubricate, and clear chips during metal cutting. Cutting fluids may be composed of oils, water, synthetic fluids, or a combination of the three.
D code A G code programming word that indicates the depth of cut in a rough turning and rough facing cycle. A D code indicates the number of tool passes in the G73 rough profile turning cycle.
depth of cut doc. The distance that a cutting tool penetrates the surface of a workpiece. Depth of cut determines the amount of material removed with each cutting pass.
diameter The distance from one edge of a circle to the opposite edge through the center. A drill's diameter is the thickness of the drill.
diameter The measurement of a circle or cylinder at its widest point. The diameter of a drill can be used to find the length of its tip.
drag line A mark left along the length of a hole at the end of a G86 rough boring operation. Drag lines are the result of a boring tool retracting rapidly out of a hole.
drill A fluted tool designed to drill holes. Drills used for CNC lathes typically have a 118° tip.
drilling A machining operation designed to create a circular hole in a workpiece. Drilling to the correct depth requires using trigonometry to calculate the length of the drill tip.
drilling The use of a multipoint tool to machine a new round hole into the surface of a workpiece. Drilling is a type of holemaking operation.
dwell A pause built into the execution of a program in which the cutting tool remains in contact with the workpiece. A dwell can be used to improve the finish of a hole.
F code A word in a part program that determines the feed rate during a cutting operation. F codes are usually given in inches per minute or inches per revolution.
facing A lathe cutting operation that feeds a cutting tool across an end of a cylindrical workpiece to create a flat surface and shorten its length. Facing can be performed with the G94 canned cycle.
facing An operation in which an operator uses a lathe to feed a cutting tool across an end of a cylindrical workpiece to create a flat surface. Facing is usually completed before setting program zero.
feed The rate at which the cutting tool and the workpiece move in relation to one another. Feed is typically a linear movement but can also be angular and circular.
feed rate The rate at which the cutting tool moves along the workpiece. Feed rate is typically a linear movement.
finishing A final metal cutting pass that emphasizes tight tolerances and smooth surface finish. Finishing cuts usually follow roughing operations.
forgings A workpiece formed by compressing or hammering hot metal to achieve a specific shape. Forgings are often similar to their desired final shape and require profile turning rather than straight turning operations.
full arcs A portion of a circle that forms an angle measuring exactly 90 degrees. Cutting full arcs requires circular interpolation.
G code A word in a part program that determines the type of operation performed on the CNC machine. G codes apply to all blocks following their occurrence until a new G code occurs in the part program.
G code programming A method of programming that pairs address letters with numerical values to form words. G code programming is used to write a part program.
G70 A code in G code programming that generally activates the finish turning or facing canned cycle. The G70 canned cycle follows either a G71, G72, or G73 canned cycle.
G71 A code in G code programming that generally activates the rough turning canned cycle. The G71 canned cycle is a multiple repetitive cycle.
G72 A code in G code programming that generally activates the rough facing canned cycle. The G72 canned cycle is a multiple repetitive cycle.
G73 A code in G code programming that generally activates the rapid peck drilling canned cycle. During the G73 canned cycle, the cutting tool backs up between pecks without fully exiting the hole.
G73 A code in G code programming that generally activates the rough profile turning canned cycle. The G73 canned cycle is a multiple repetitive cycle.
G74 A code in G code programming that generally activates the left-hand tapping canned cycle. During the G74 canned cycle, the cutting tool rotates counterclockwise as it enters a hole to cut a thread.
G81 A code in G code programming that usually activates the general drilling canned cycle. During the G81 canned cycle, the cutting tool positions to a hole location, drills a hole, and then exits out of the hole.
G82 A code in G code programming that generally activates the drilling with dwell canned cycle. During the G82 canned cycle, the cutting tool remains in position at the bottom of a hole before retracting out of it.
G83 A code in G code programming that generally activates the standard peck drilling canned cycle. During the G83 canned cycle, the cutting tool moves rapidly out of the hole between pecks.
G84 A code in G code programming that generally activates the right-hand tapping canned cycle. During the G84 canned cycle, the cutting tool rotates clockwise as it enters a hole to cut a thread.
G85 A code in G code programming that generally activates the boring/reaming canned cycle. The G85 canned cycle feeds a cutting tool into and then back out of a hole at the same feed rate without stopping when reversing direction at the bottom of the hole.
G86 A code in G code programming that generally activates the rough boring canned cycle. In the G86 canned cycle, a boring tool feeds into a hole, stops at the bottom, and then moves rapidly back out of the hole.
G90 A code in G code programming that generally activates the turning canned cycle. The G90 canned cycle can be used to perform a straight or tapered cut parallel to the Z axis.
G94 A code in G code programming that generally activates the facing canned cycle. The G94 canned cycle makes a straight or tapered cut parallel to the X axis.
G98 A code in G code programming that instructs the cutting tool to return to the initial level. G98 codes are often used at the end of canned cycles.
G99 A code in G code programming that instructs the cutting tool to return to the R level or clearance plane. G99 codes are often used at the end of canned cycles.
holemaking The act of machining a hole into the surface of a workpiece. Holemaking operations include drilling, boring, reaming, and tapping.
hypotenuse In a right triangle, the side located opposite the right angle. The hypotenuse is always the longest side.
I and K method A method for programming circular interpolation that uses an I code and a K code to indicate the coordinate locations of the arc center. The I and K method cannot be used with the R method.
I code A word in a part program that indicates the initial amount of material to be removed along the X axis. I codes are required for a G73 rough profile turning canned cycle.
initial level The X axis or Z axis tool position when a canned cycle is initiated. The initial level is typically located above the R level.
initial level return A movement that positions the cutting tool at the initial level at the end of a canned cycle. Initial level return occurs when a G98 code is used in a part program.
K code A word in a part program that indicates the initial amount of material to be removed along the Z axis. K codes are required for a G73 rough profile turning canned cycle and G76 threading canned cycle, when the K code indicates the depth of thread per side.
left-hand tap A cutting tool that rotates counterclockwise as it enters a hole to cut a thread. Left-hand taps require the use of the tapping canned cycle G74.
linear interpolation The toolpath required to create a straight line that does not travel parallel to any axis. Linear interpolation necessitates simultaneous movement on at least two axes.
live tooling Power-driven tools, such as end mills and drills, that are installed in a CNC lathe turret. Live tooling can perform cutting operations off-center while the workpiece is held still in the spindle.
machine control unit MCU. A small, powerful computer that controls and operates a CNC machine. Machine control units offer standard canned cycles as well as special canned cycles.
machining The process of removing metal to form, shape, or finish a part. Machining processes include turning, drilling, and boring.
MCUs Machine control unit. A small, powerful computer that controls and operates a CNC machine. MCUs offer standard canned cycles as well as special canned cycles.
mode A programmed function that stays in effect until it is either cancelled or substituted with another function. Most canned cycles function as modes on a CNC machine.
modes A programmed function that stays in effect until it is either cancelled or substituted with another function. All canned cycles function as modes on a CNC machine.
multiple repetitive cycle A canned cycle for the lathe that uses a single block of code to automatically execute a series of tool passes. Multiple repetitive cycles include the canned cycles G71, G72, G73, and G76.
origin The fixed center point of the Cartesian coordinate system. The origin has a numerical value of zero for any axis.
overrides A control that allows a machine operator to adjust a programmed machining variable during execution of the part program. Overrides cannot occur during tapping operations, because they require a synchronized speed and feed rate.
P code A word in the drilling with dwell G82 canned cycle that indicates how long the tool should dwell inside the hole. P codes are also used in multiple repetitive canned cycles to indicate the starting block number of the final toolpath.
part program Instructions used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to machine a specific workpiece. Part programs are composed of G code.
part programs A series of alphanumerical instructions used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to machine a specific workpiece. Multiple part programs can be stored in a CNC at one time.
partial arcs A portion of a machined circular part. Every partial arc measures less than 90 degrees.
peck drilling A drilling operation that periodically retracts the tool to clear chips or flood the hole with coolant. Peck drilling is often used for holes that are three or four times deeper than the drill diameter.
pecks A single pass of a peck drilling cycle. A complete peck drilling cycle is comprised of a number of pecks.
perpendicular An object or plane that exists at a right angle to another object or plane. Three perpendicular axes are used to define the Cartesian coordinate system.
profile turning A turning operation that uses a single-point tool to machine the outline of a part feature. Profile turning operations typically require the use of the G73 rough profile turning canned cycle.
program zero A position that acts as the origin for the part program of each particular workpiece. Program zero is selected by the part programmer.
Q code A word in a peck drilling canned cycle that indicates how far to feed the drill into the part for each peck. Q codes are also used to indicate the ending block number of the final toolpath in multiple repetitive canned cycles.
R code A word in a holemaking canned cycle that describes the location of the R level or clearance plane. An R code also indicates the position from one end of a taper to the other when machining tapers with a G90 turning or G94 facing canned cycle on some CNC lathes.
R level An imaginary line on the X or Z axis that indicates the top of the cutting tool clearance plane. An R level indicates the safe distance for rapid tool movement from one operation to the next.
R level return A movement that positions the cutting tool at the R level or clearance plane. R level return occurs when a G99 code is used in a part program.
R method A method for programming circular interpolation that uses an R code to indicate the size of the radius that forms the arc. The R method cannot be used with the I and K method.
rapid positions The quick movement of a machine component to a certain location. Rapid positioning occurs when the cutting tool is not machining into the workpiece.
reaming The process of enlarging an existing hole with a multipoint tool. Reaming is performed to improve the surface finish and concentricity of a hole.
right triangles A triangle containing one right angle, which is an angle that measures exactly 90 degrees. Right triangles are useful for calculating tool positions.
right-hand tap A cutting tool that rotates clockwise as it enters a hole to cut a thread. Right-hand taps require the use of the tapping canned cycle G84.
rough boring A holemaking operation that enlarges an existing hole with a single-point tool that rapidly retracts from the hole after machining. Rough boring often leaves a mark, known as a drag line, along the length of the hole.
roughing An initial cutting tool pass that emphasizes high material removal rates rather than surface finish and accuracy. Roughing passes are followed by a finishing pass.
shoulder On a workpiece with different diameters, the area where it transitions from one diameter to the other. Shoulders may be curved, requiring partial arc calculations.
sine The ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle divided by the hypotenuse. Sine is often written as sin.
speed The rate at which the machine spindle rotates. The spindle speed affects how fast the cutting tool moves at the point of contact.
spindle The part of the machine tool that rotates. On the lathe, the spindle holds the workpiece.
spot drilling A drilling operation that uses a shorter, sturdier drill to create a small hole that prevents the regular drill from wandering off center. Spot drilling often uses a drill size slightly larger than the hole diameter.
stock Raw material that is used to make manufactured parts. Stock is available in standard shapes such as long bars, plates, or sheets.
surface finish The degree of roughness and variation on the surface of a part after it has been manufactured. Surface finish on a part cannot be perfectly smooth, due to irregularities created during machining.
synchronizing To operate at the same time or rate. Synchronizing feed and speed is required for tapping operations.
tangent The ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle divided by the adjacent side. Tangent is often written as tan.
taper angle The degree at which a cylindrical part changes diameters along its length. Taper angles are used in programming calculations for turning tapered workpieces.
tapers A conical shape with a gradually increasing or decreasing diameter. Tapers can be machined using the G90 turning or G94 facing canned cycle or using a multiple repetitive cycle.
tapping The process of cutting internal threads in a hole with a rotating multipoint tool. Tapping can be performed on a lathe using the canned cycle G84 or G74 as long as it has the appropriate tapping cutting tool.
threads A long, spiral ridge around the exterior or interior of a cylindrically shaped object. Threads are usually machined to attach a fastener or a part to its mate.
tolerance An unwanted but acceptable deviation from a given dimension. Both workpieces and gages have specified tolerances.
toolpath A series of coordinate positions that determine the movement of a tool during a machining operation. Toolpaths are expressed in G code.
toolpath A series of program blocks that describes the movement of a single cutting tool. The toolpath includes multiple tool movements.
trigonometric ratios Mathematical ratios from which the sides or angles of a right triangle can be calculated. Trigonometric ratios are used often in CNC lathe programming.
trigonometry The branch of mathematics that addresses the measurements and relationships of a triangle and its parts. Trigonometry is used extensively in CNC machining.
turning A machining operation that rotates a cylindrical workpiece while a single-point tool is guided along the length of the part. Turning can be performed using the G90 canned cycle.
turning center CNC lathes that are also capable of milling operations. A turning center requires calculations in all three Cartesian axes.
turning centers A sophisticated CNC lathe that can perform a variety of drilling and milling operations all at the same location. Turning centers usually use live tooling.
turret A lathe component that holds a number of cutting tools. Turrets rotate or index to place tools in cutting position.
U code A word in a multiple repetitive cycle that determines the stock remaining along the X axis. A U code, along with a W code, is required to run a G71 rough turning or G72 rough facing cycle.
W code A word in a multiple repetitive cycle that determines the stock remaining along the Z axis. A W code, along with a U code, is required to run a G71 rough turning or G72 rough facing cycle.
X axis A linear axis perpendicular to the machine spindle. The X axis usually runs parallel to the workpiece face on a CNC lathe.
X axis The linear axis representing the longest distance of travel perpendicular to the spindle. The X axis typically describes forward-and-away movement on the CNC lathe or turning center.
X code A word in a part program that describes a specific position along the X axis. X codes are usually used for both CNC mills and CNC lathes.
Y axis A linear axis that is rarely used on CNC lathes. The Y axis typically describes up-and-down travel on a turning center.
Z axis The linear axis representing coordinate positions along a line parallel to the spindle. The Z axis usually runs parallel to the workpiece centerline on a CNC lathe.
Z axis The linear axis that runs parallel to the spindle, or around which the spindle rotates. The Z axis typically describes right-to-left or left-to-right travel on the CNC lathe or turning center.
Z code A word in a part program that describes a specific position along the Z axis. Z codes are usually used for both CNC mills and CNC lathes.
Z depth The Z axis position that marks the depth of a hole in a holemaking canned cycle. The Z depth is indicated by the Z code.