Process Flow Charting 241

"Process Flow Charting" provides an overview of the types and purposes of flow charts, including spaghetti diagrams, process maps, and value stream maps. This class describes the value of current- and future-state charts and how they contribute to quality initiatives.

Process flow charts are a means to identify waste and inefficiencies in the production process. Choosing a flow chart depends on the needs and goals of the manufacturer; some charts use symbols and incorporate metrics, while others can simply be drawn by watching activities in the facility. With this class, new practitioners will learn about the development and use of flow charts and be better prepared to utilize these tools.

Class Details

Class Name:
Process Flow Charting 241
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Intermediate
Number of Lessons:
20
Related 1.0 Class:
Process Flow Charting 240

Class Outline

  • Process Flow Charts
  • Identifying Waste
  • Metrics
  • Process Flow Charts Review
  • Current-State and Future-State Process Flow Charting
  • Current-State Process Flow Charting
  • Future-State Process Flow Charting
  • Product Families
  • Process Flow Charts Review
  • Types of Process Flow Charts
  • Current-State Spaghetti Diagram
  • Future-State Spaghetti Diagram
  • Process Map Symbols
  • Current- and Future-State Process Maps
  • Process Map Review
  • Value Stream Mapping
  • VSM Layout: Communication
  • VSM Layout: Processes, Material Movement, and Timeline
  • Process Flow Charts Review
  • Pros and Cons of Flow Charting

Objectives

  • Define process flow charts.
  • Describe how flow charting helps manufacturers identify waste.
  • Describe the relationship between flow charts and metrics.
  • Distinguish between current-state and future-state process flow charting.
  • Describe the current-state flow charting process.
  • Describe the future-state flow charting process.
  • Describe the purpose of identifying product families.
  • Identify the main types of process flow charts.
  • Describe a current-state spaghetti diagram.
  • Describe a future-state spaghetti diagram.
  • Match common process-mapping symbols with their descriptions.
  • Describe the advantages of using symbols in process maps.
  • Describe the categories of symbols used in value stream mapping.
  • Describe each section of a value stream map.
  • Describe the pros and cons of process flow charting.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
cell An arrangement of machines, tooling, materials, and operators structured around the design of similar products. Cells encourage smooth product flows and use space efficiently.
changeover time The time it takes to tear down the setup for the current product type, prepare for the next product type, and successfully produce the first good part. Manufacturers try to reduce changeover time as much as possible.
current-state flow chart A visual tool that documents the present condition of a manufacturing environment, including any flaws or errors. Current-state charts are sometimes called present-state charts.
cycle time The time it takes to perform a task and forward it to the next step. One of the major goals of lean is to match cycle time to takt time.
future-state flow chart A visual tool that shows how the process can look after improvements have been implemented. A future-state chart shows the process with flaws and errors eliminated.
information symbols A type of value stream mapping symbol that indicates the form, flow, and direction of communication and data. A jagged arrow, which represents electronic information, is an example of an information symbol.
kanban A Japanese word meaning "card signal." In pull systems, kanban represents any visual method used to show the need for parts or products to be moved or produced.
lead time The time spent between the original customer order for a particular product and its final delivery to the customer. Manufacturers try to reduce lead time to improve customer satisfaction.
material symbols A type of value stream mapping symbol that indicates the origin, location, and movement of raw materials and parts within the system. A triangle, which represents inventory, is an example of a material symbol.
metrics Data used to gauge performance. Metrics can be used to detect errors and track an operation's progress.
non-value added Activities that do not contribute to the product or the process and should therefore be eliminated. Non-value added steps are waste.
non-value added Activities that do not contribute to the product or the-process and should therefore be eliminated. Non-value added steps are waste.
non-value added but essential Activities that support value added steps but that do not directly contribute to the product. Material handling is often considered a non-value added but essential activity.
present-state flow chart A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment, including any flaws or errors. Present-state charts are sometimes called current-state charts.
process flow charts A visual representation of the steps required to manufacture a product. Spaghetti diagrams, process maps, and value stream maps are examples of process flow charts.
process map A process flow chart that uses symbols and arrows to show the flow of the manufacturing process. Process maps are more complex than spaghetti diagrams.
process symbols A type of value stream mapping symbol that indicates actions that take place or the locations where processes occur. A U-shaped symbol, which represents a cell, is an example of a process symbol.
product family Groups of products that use similar machines or processes during manufacture. Grouping products according to family simplifies process flow charting.
pull system A material management system in which parts are not delivered to machines until they are needed. Pull systems are based on actual demand for products.
push system A production method based on keeping up with preset inventory levels or with due dates for customer orders. Push systems often lead to excess inventory and waste.
spaghetti diagram A process flow chart that uses a continuous line to trace the path of a product through the manufacturing process. Spaghetti diagrams expose inefficient layouts and large distances traveled between steps.
value A real or perceived quality that satisfies the needs and wants of a customer. Value includes the features of a product, as well as other qualities associated with the product.
value added Any part of the production process that improves the product for the customer. For a process to be value-added, a customer must be willing to pay for it.
value stream map VSM. A sophisticated process flow chart that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to depict the manufacturing process and track performance. Value stream maps help determine which steps add value and which do not.
waste Any thing or process that does not add value to a product. Scrap and waiting are common forms of waste.