Value Stream Mapping: The Future State 311

"Value Stream Mapping: The Future State" builds on concepts users used in "Value Stream Mapping: The Current State." This class describes how to develop a future state value stream map, including how to evaluate a current state value stream map, target problem areas, and design a plan to reduce non-value added activities.

A value stream map (VSM) is a process flow chart that manufacturers use to identify waste. The first step in value stream mapping is to create a current state map that represents the present flow of the facility. The next step is to identify areas of waste and develop a future state map. Future state maps represent changes the company can make to improve the facility's layout, production management, and communication systems. Reducing waste and streamlining processes is a goal in all manufacturing facilities. After completing these courses, users will be able to create VSMs and contribute to quality improvement efforts.

Class Details

Class Name:
Value Stream Mapping: The Future State 311
Version:
2.0
Difficulty:
Advanced
Number of Lessons:
23
Related 1.0 Class:
Value Stream Mapping: The Future State 305

Class Outline

  • Mapping the Future State
  • Revisiting the Current State
  • Current State Data
  • Takt Time
  • Current State Metrics
  • Reviewing VSM Metrics
  • Identifying Areas for Improvement
  • The Future State and Capacity
  • Bottlenecks
  • Kaizen Bursts
  • The Future State and Kaizen Bursts
  • Kaizen Results
  • Reviewing VSM Components
  • Flow: Work Cells
  • The Future State and Work Cells
  • Production Managment: Avoiding Push
  • The Future State and Pull Systems
  • The Future State and Kanban
  • The Future State and the Material Handler
  • Reviewing VSM Development
  • Reviewing Metrics
  • The Current State VSM and Future State VSM
  • The Limits of VSM

Objectives

  • Describe value stream mapping.
  • Identify characteristics of a current state VSM.
  • Calculate availability time and uptime
  • Calculate takt time.
  • Distinguish among various metrics.
  • Identify areas for improvement on a current state VSM.
  • Identify processes with capacity problems using takt time.
  • Identify a bottleneck process.
  • Describe kaizen bursts.
  • Describe work cells.
  • Describe push and its relationship to flow.
  • Describe pull systems and their relationship to workflow.
  • Describe kanban and its relationship to flow.
  • Identify the material handler on a VSM.
  • Describe ways in which metrics show improvement in the future state.
  • Distinguish between a current state VSM and a future state VSM.
  • Describe the limits of value stream mapping.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
availability time The time a production line is available for production. Availability time is measured in seconds and does not include planned downtime like lunch periods and breaks.
bottleneck The production process with the longest cycle time. A bottleneck process limits the flow of production and is easily identified when compared to takt time.
capacity A metric that indicates how many parts per day the slowest process can handle. Capacity is determined by multiplying parts per hour by the time in one shift or one day.
capacity A metric that indicates how many parts per day your slowest process can handle. Capacity is determined by multiplying parts per hour by the time in one shift or one day.
changeover time C/O. The non-value added time required to convert a setup for one product line to a setup for another product line. Changeover time is included when determining a machine&339;s uptime.
CNC horizontal machining center A computer numerical control (CNC) machine center with a spindle that is parallel to the ground. CNC horizontal machining centers can perform multiple machining operations in the same setup with a variety of tools.
CNC vertical machining center A computer numerical control (CNC) machine center with a spindle that is perpendicular to the groud. CNC vertical machining centers can perform multiple machining operations in the same setup with a variety of tools.
continuous improvement The belief that an organization must constantly measure the effectiveness of its processes and strive to meet more difficult objectives to satisfy customers. Continuous improvement is typically associated with lean manufacturing.
current state map A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment. A current state value stream map, which is sometimes called a present state value stream map, captures all of the details of manufacturing processes just as they exist at the moment the map is produced.
cycle time C/T. The time it takes to perform a task and forward it to the next step. One of the major goals of lean is to match cycle time to takt time.
demand The amount of product requested by the customer. Demand can be calculated per shift or per hour.
downstream Activities that take place toward the end of the value stream relative to an activity that takes place toward the beginning of the value stream. Downstream activities occur after upstream activities.
drill press A machining tool that uses a drill to penetrate the surface of a workpiece and make a round hole. Drill presses can be used for a variety of hole-making operations.
future state map A visual tool that shows how a value stream can look after improvements have been implemented. A future-state value stream map is an ideal view of a value stream and represents the goal of a lean initiative.
indexing pallet exchange system Equipment that moves platforms of parts or machine components to a different fixed position. Indexing pallet exchange systems can increase production speed.
kaizen The belief that an organization must maintain a focus on change for the better or continuous improvement. "Kaizen" is a Japanese word meaning "change for the better."
kaizen burst A multi-day, hands-on event that targets a particular problem area within a company. Kaizen bursts, often called kaizen events, result in dramatic changes carried out by a cross-functional team.
kaizen event A multi-day, hands-on event that targets a particular problem area within a company. Kaizen events, often called kaizen bursts, result in dramatic changes carried out by a cross-functional team.
kanban A Japanese word meaning "card signal." In pull systems, kanban represents any visual method used to show the need for parts or products to be moved or produced.
kanban Any visual method used to show the need for parts or products to be moved or produced in a lean system. "Kanban" is a Japanese word meaning "card signal."
kanban supermarket A stockpoint of inventory that supplies a downstream channel. Kanban supermarkets are indicated on value stream maps using shelf-like icons.
lean An approach to manufacturing that seeks to reduce the cycle time of processes, increase flexibility, and improve quality. Lean approaches help to eliminate waste in all its forms.
linked cells A group of work cells tied together using kanban. In a linked cell system, parts travel between cells in small batches.
low-variety/high-volume A type of manufacturing environment in which the end products are produced in large quantities and with very little variation. Low-variety/high volume companies are ideal candidates for value stream mapping.
material handler An employee responsible for delivering kanban cards and part components between processes along the value stream. The material handler, or runner, seeks to maintain pitch.
metrics Measured variables that are tracked over time in order to detect errors or variation and make improvements. Cycle time, capacity, and parts per hour are metrics used in manufacturing.
operational takt time A variation of takt time that accounts for system failures such as offline equipment and absent employees. Operational takt time is availability time divided by customer demand, adjusted to account for predictable failures.
parts per hour PPH. A metric that indicates the amount of parts produced within one hour. Parts per hour is a good indicator of process efficiency.
parts per hour PPH. A metric that indicates the amount of parts produced within one hour. PPH is a good indicator of process efficiency.
pitch The time it takes to create a container of finished parts. Pitch is the number of parts in a container multiplied by takt time.
present state map A visual tool that documents the current condition of a manufacturing environment. A present state value stream map, which is sometimes called a current state value stream map, captures all of the details of manufacturing processes just as they exist at the moment the map is produced.
production kanban A point at which a visual signal asks for parts to be moved to a downstream process. Production kanban are used in conjunction with withdrawal kanban.
pull system A lean manufacturing method in which items are not delivered to a stage of the process until they are needed. Pull systems help reduce inventory.
pull systems A lean manufacturing method in which items are not delivered to a stage of the process until they are needed. Pull systems help reduce inventory.
push systems A traditional manufacturing environment in which parts are produced based on keeping up with preset inventory levels, due dates for customer orders, or demand forecasts.
runner An employee responsible for delivering kanban cards and component parts between processes along the value stream. The runner, or material handler, seeks to maintain pitch.
takt time The rate at which a customer requires a company to manufacture products. Takt time is the number of work minutes per day divided by the number of orders per day.
throughput The rate of production for a process over a specific amount of time. Bottlenecks limit throughput.
total cycle time The sum of all cycle times in a value stream. Total cycle time is also called total value-adding time.
upstream Activities that take place toward the beginning of the value stream. Upstream activities occur before downstream activities.
uptime The ratio of the actual production time of a machine to the availability time. Uptime is calculated by dividing actual production time by the availability time.
value stream map VSM. A sophisticated flow charting method that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to help visualize processes and track performance. Value stream mapping determines which steps of a process add value and which do not.
VSM Value stream map. A sophisticated flow charting method that uses symbols, metrics, and arrows to help visualize processes and track performance. Value stream mapping determines which steps of a process add value and which do not.
waste Any thing or process that does not add value to a product. Scrap is the most common form of waste.
WIP Work in progress. A type of inventory that is currently in process and is measured in days. WIP is measured by adding all of the units of inventory at the bottom of the value stream map.
work cell A specialized grouping of people, machines, and materials. Work cells are designed to efficiently produce small batches of parts.
work in progress WIP. A type of inventory that is currently in process and is measured in days. WIP is measured by adding all of the units of inventory at the bottom of the value stream map.
work in progress WIP. A type of inventory that is currently in process. Work in progress is measured in days.