Design for Manufacturing 201

“Design for Manufacturing 201” provides an introduction to the Design for X (DFX) methodology and its application to manufacturing processes. DFX and Design for Manufacturing (DFM) are systematic approaches to product and process design that focus on developing products at the lowest cost and highest quality while saving time. Adopting DFM practices simplifies and standardizes manufacturing processes so that products reach market more efficiently.

A primary advantage of Design for Manufacturing is that optimal manufacturable designs are completed early in the development process. This prevents non-manufacturable product designs that lead to costly revisions and re-designs. After taking this class, users will have a high-level understanding of the methodologies of DFM and general insight into the development processes and benefits.

Class Details

Class Name:
Design for Manufacturing 201
Difficulty:
Intermediate
Number of Lessons:
12

Class Outline

  • Design for X
  • DFX Applications and Benefits
  • Implementation of DFX
  • Review: DFX
  • Design for Manufacturing
  • DFM Fundamentals
  • DFM Process
  • Review: DFM
  • Tolerancing for DFM
  • Design for Assembly
  • Design for Quality Control
  • Final Review

Objectives

  • Describe Design for X.
  • Explain the applications and benefits of DFX.
  • Describe the implementation of DFX.
  • Describe Design for Manufacturing.
  • Describe the fundamental guidelines of DFM.
  • Describe the process flow of a DFM project.
  • Describe appropriate tolerancing for DFM.
  • Describe Design for Assembly.
  • Describe Design for Quality Control.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
additive manufacturing The process of successively layering materials to make a part based on a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing allows for rapid prototyping, mass customization, and increased part complexity.
assembly The process of joining components together into a larger or completed part. Assembly methods include mechanical fastening, adhesive bonding, and welding.
asymmetrical Having features on either side of a point, line, or plane that differ in size, shape, or position. Asymmetrical parts and products have clearly distinguished sides and components, which can reduce assembly errors.
automation The use of self-regulated equipment, processes, or systems that meet manufacturing requirements with limited human intervention. Automation is an efficient means of performing manufacturing processes.
Business Process Reengineering BPR. Streamlining decision-making in product design, processes, and resources. Business Process Reengineering is a large-scope tool that uses DFX and concurrent engineering to implement lasting changes to business processes.
concurrent engineering Cooperative design among multiple departments, disciplines, backgrounds, and skill sets within a company. Concurrent engineering, also known as Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD), is fundamental to Design for X.
contingency plans A strategy for anticipating unforeseen threats and opportunities and preparing a response. Contingency plans should be created in the initial stages of product development.
cost Typically expressed as a dollar amount, the amount of time, money, and labor spent to create a product or perform a service. Placing primary emphasis on developing culture and quality, as well as ensuring flexible responsiveness, helps to reduce overall cost.
cycle times The amount of time required to complete one manufacturing process from its beginning to its end. Cycle times are reduced by DFX methodologies.
Design for Assembly DFA. A form of Integrated Product and Process Development that focuses on simplifying and streamlining assembly processes. Design for Assembly minimizes the total product cost by targeting assembly time, part cost, and the assembly process at the design stage of the product development cycle.
Design for Manufacturing DFM. A form of Integrated Product and Process Development that focuses on designing, manufacturing, testing, and creating a part that functions correctly and is easy to manufacture. Design for Manufacturing involves considering part functionality and the limits of the manufacturing process.
Design for Quality Control DFQC. A quality-driven form of Integrated Product and Process Development. Design for Quality Control focuses on developing the product, improving the product, and improving the system to make and sustain the product.
Design for X DFX. A methodology that requires all decisions related to products, processes, costs, and constraints be made early on in the development process. Design for X encompasses many areas and processes of design, including Design for Manufacturing.
design freeze The end point of the design phase when technical product descriptions are sent to production. Design freezes help lock in product requirements and reduce the chance of engineering changes.
DFA Design for Assembly. A form of Integrated Product and Process Development that focuses on simplifying and streamlining assembly processes. DFA minimizes the total product cost by targeting assembly time, part cost, and the assembly process at the design stage of the product development cycle.
DFM Design for Manufacturing. A form of Integrated Product and Process Development that focuses on designing, manufacturing, testing, and creating a part that functions correctly and is easy to manufacture. DFM involves considering part functionality and the limits of the manufacturing process.
DFQC Design for Quality Control. A quality-driven form of Integrated Product and Process Development. Design for Quality Control focuses on developing the product, improving the product, and improving the system to make and sustain the product.
DFX Design for X. A methodology that requires all decisions related to products, processes, costs, and constraints be made early on in the development process. DFX encompasses many areas and processes of design, including Design for Manufacturing.
dimensions The desired measurement of a feature on a part. A dimension is listed as a number given in the appropriate units.
distribution The movement of parts from manufacturers at the point of production to end-use customers. Distribution expenses are considered part of manufacturing system costs.
function The ability of a product to optimally perform a set purpose. Function is a key design consideration.
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing GD&T. An international standard for communicating instructions about the design and manufacturing of parts. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing uses universal symbols and emphasizes the function of the part.
Integrated Product and Process Development IPPD. Cooperative design among multiple departments, disciplines, backgrounds, and skill sets within a company. Integrated Product and Process Development, also known as concurrent engineering, is fundamental to Design for X.
Integrated Product and Process Team IPPT. A multi-disciplinary group of employees focused on concurrent engineering and product design. The Integrated Product and Process Team is a term used by government institutions.
inventory Manufactured products that are stored prior to being shipped to customers for end-use. Inventory allows manufacturers to have parts available to sell, but it also requires additional storage costs.
IPPD Integrated Product and Process Development. Cooperative design among multiple departments, disciplines, backgrounds, and skill sets within a company. Integrated Product and Process Development, also known as concurrent engineering, is fundamental to Design for X.
IPPT Integrated Product and Process Team. A multi-disciplinary group of employees focused on concurrent engineering and product design. The IPPT is a term used by government institutions.
iteration Repeating actions and steps in processes. Iteration is an important aspect of Design for X because it allows for constant and quick re-designs during initial stages.
lean manufacturing An approach to manufacturing that seeks to reduce the cycle time of processes, increase flexibility, and improve quality. Lean manufacturing seeks to eliminate waste in all its forms.
models A representation of a specific part or product. Models are usually three-dimensional and can be physical or digital.
modular designs Independent parts with standardized interfaces that allow for interchangeability and use across many projects. Modular designs provide greater efficiency.
overhead costs Expenses associated with operating buildings and equipment, including rent, insurance, utilities, and repairs. Traditional manufacturing companies try to reduce overhead costs as much as possible.
poka-yoke A Japanese term meaning mistake proofing. Poka-yoke is an error-prevention method that eliminates operator errors in production or assembly.
procurement The process of acquiring a product or service, which includes defining needs, seeking bids, awarding contracts, taking delivery, and paying suppliers. Procurement is made easier by standardization.
product lifecycle The series of stages a product goes through from conception to the end of its useful life. The product lifecycle includes design, production, distribution, and end-use by the customer.
prototypes A preliminary model of a part used to evaluate the look and performance of a design. Prototypes are used to determine the specifications for the final part.
quality Conformance to a set of standards or specifications that results in customer satisfaction in a product or service. Quality products are free of defects and meet the requirements of their anticipated use.
Quality Control Plan QCP. A document that lists the checkpoints to be passed during or after a production run. The Quality Control Plan can include process, product, or regulatory considerations.
simulations A computerized re-creation of a physical space and activity. Simulations are used to duplicate real-world situations and products in order to evaluate how a part will be manufactured and function.
SPC Statistical process control. The use of statistics and control charts to measure key quality characteristics and to control the related processes. SPC separates special causes of variation from common causes.
specifications A description of the essential physical and technical properties of a part. Specifications include information on the shape and tolerance of a part as well as required mechanical and physical properties.
statistical process control SPC. The use of statistics and control charts to measure key quality characteristics and to control the related processes. Statistical process control separates special causes of variation from common causes.
statistical tolerancing The process of using statistics to assign tolerances for mating parts of an assembly. Statistical tolerancing uses statistical process control (SPC) to measure and track variation.
supply chain A network of companies that exchange resources such as materials and information to deliver products to customers. Supply chains consist of a company, its suppliers, its distributors, and its customers.
symmetrical Having features on either side of a point, line, or plane that are identical in size, shape, and position. Both sides of a symmetrical part have the same dimensions, which can reduce assembly errors.
time-to-market The length of time it takes from a product being conceived until it is available for sale. Quick time-to-market is a benefit of Design for X.
tolerance stacks Accumulated variation that occurs when successive acceptable tolerances build on one another to form an unacceptable tolerance. Tolerance stacks can render a product unusable.
tolerances An acceptable deviation from a desired dimension that still meets part specifications. Tolerances indicate the allowable difference between a physical feature and its intended design.
total cost Combined expenses for all parts, labor, and overhead. Calculating total cost is the best way to account for the entire cost of a product and helps guide goals for DFM.
variable data Data that can be measured on a scale and compared with other data. Variable data can be added to or subtracted from other variable data sets.