# Robot Axes 140

This class will describe the most common robot axes. It will explain how to understand these axes, and how they are used to control robot movement.

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## Class Details

Class Name:
Robot Axes 140
Difficulty:
Beginner
Number of Lessons:
16
Additional Language:
Spanish

## Class Outline

• Objectives
• What Is a Robot?
• Robot Axes
• Robot Coordinates
• The Axes and Origin
• Positive and Negative Directions
• Coordinate Systems
• Rotational Axes
• Degrees of Freedom
• Kinematics
• Inverse Kinematics
• Vectors
• Jacobians
• Path Programs
• Robot Safety
• Summary

## Objectives

• Define industrial robots.
• Describe robot axes.
• Describe robot coordinates.
• Identify Cartesian axes using the right-hand rule.
• Explain positive and negative coordinates.
• Describe robot coordinate systems.
• Describe rotational axes.
• Describe degrees of freedom.
• Describe kinematics.
• Describe inverse kinematics.
• Describe vectors.
• Describe Jacobians.
• Describe the types of paths robots can be programmed to take.
• Describe robot safety practices.

## Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
A-axis A rotational axis that describes motion around the X-axis.
algorithm A mathematical process designed to systematically solve a problem.
articulated robot A type of robotic arm that closely resembles a human arm. The arm of an articulated robot has revolute joints and the number of joints can vary.
axes Imaginary straight lines or circles used to describe the location or movement of an object in the Cartesian coordinate system.
B-axis A rotational axis that describes motion around the Y-axis.
Cartesian coordinate system A numerical system that describes the location of an object by numerically expressing its distance from a fixed position along three linear axes.
Cartesian robot A type of robotic arm that has prismatic joints only. The linear movement of the joints gives the Cartesian robot a highly rigid structure that allows it to lift heavy objects.
C-axis A rotational axis that describes motion around the Z-axis.
CNC A type of programmable control system, directed by mathematical data, which uses microcomputers to carry out various machining operations.
continuous path A type of robot programming that has the manipulator move smoothly without stopping along its path.
degrees of freedom The available ways a component can move in three-dimensional space along an axis. Robots typically have 3 to 6 degrees of freedom.
end-effector The end component of a robotic arm that is shaped like a hand or like a specialized tool. Also known as end-of-arm tool (EOAT).
forward kinematics The calculating of the position or motion of each robotic link as a function of joint displacements.
industrial robot A programmable mechanical device that is used in place of a person to perform dangerous or repetitive tasks with a high degree of accuracy.
inverse kinematics The calculating of joint displacements needed to move the end-effector to a desired position and orientation.
Jacobian A matrix quantity that maps velocities in joint space to velocities in Cartesian space.
joint The location at which two or more parts of a robotic arm make contact. Joints allow parts to move in different directions.
joint space The space defined by a vector that contains the displacement of each joint linkage relative to a reference point.
kinematics The science of motion without regard for the forces that cause that motion. In robotics, kinematics involves studying the mapping of coordinates in motion.
linear joint A joint that moves in a straight line across one axis. Also known as a prismatic joint.
linear movement Movement in a straight line across one axis.
link A fastener that joins or connects the parts of a robotic arm.
map A function that matches elements from one data set to a unique element in another data set. In robotics, Jacobians map data from joint space to Cartesian space.
matrix quantity A set of velocities that is expressed as a series of vectors.
origin The fixed, central point in the Cartesian coordinate system. The origin has a numerical value of zero at each axis.
part program A series of numerical instructions used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to machine a specific workpiece.
point to point A type of robot programming that has the manipulator reach a set point, stop, complete its task, and then move to the next set point.
position vector A set of three vector points along a specific axis that is used to fix a location in space.
prismatic joint A joint that moves in a straight line across one axis. Also known as a linear joint.
revolute joint A joint that rotates around more than one axis.
right angle An angle formed by two lines that are perpendicular to one another. The corners of a piece of paper form right angles.
right-hand rule A quick reference that shows the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. A person displays his or her right hand, and the first three fingers from the right each represent the X-, Y-, and Z-axis in order.
rotation matrix A mathematical way to describe a point in space by using vectors of the principal axes in terms of the attached coordinate system.
rotational axes The axes that describe turning or rotation around the linear axes.
singularities Points at which the calculation of the Jacobian does not have a unique solution.
teaching A process used to program a robot and control its movements.
tool coordinates A robot coordinate system that sets the origin at the end-effector. Tool coordinates change their orientation as the tool moves.
trajectory generation The process of computing different motion functions so that a robot's various joints move in a coordinated fashion.
vector quantities Amounts or measurements that are related to a direction. Velocity, acceleration, and weight are vector quantities.
via point An intermediate location through which the manipulator must pass on its way to the destination. Via points are required for circular motion because three points are needed to define the function of a circle.
work cell The defined area of space through which a robot can move. Also known as the work envelope.
work envelope The defined area of space through which a robot can move. Also known as the work cell.
world coordinates A robot coordinate system that sets the origin at the centerline of the first joint. World coordinates are static.
X-axis The linear axis representing side-to-side movement in a robot, relative to the origin.
Y-axis The linear axis representing back and forth movement in a robot, relative to the origin.
Z-axis The linear axis that represents up and down movement in a robot, relative to the origin.