Additive Manufacturing: Prototype to Production 162

"Additive Manufacturing: Prototype to Production 162" provides an overview of the production uses, considerations, and approaches to additive manufacturing (AM). Although often used for rapid prototyping, it is becoming more common for manufacturing facilities to use additive manufacturing for end-use products. As end-use processes evolve, comparing key factors such as time, cost, and quality can help decision-makers choose between AM and traditional machining for their parts or products.

After taking this class, users will be able to describe how additive manufacturing is used for production, identify the production processes, and describe their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, users will better understand the material properties and appearance of additively manufactured parts and appreciate how end-use processes can complement traditional manufacturing.

Class Details

Class Name:
Additive Manufacturing: Prototype to Production 162
Difficulty:
Beginner
Number of Lessons:
9

Class Outline

  • Additive Manufacturing and Production
  • AM Production Processes
  • AM Production Advantages
  • AM Production Disadvantages
  • AM Production Review
  • Common AM Applications
  • AM Material Standards
  • AM Material Considerations
  • Final Review

Objectives

  • Describe AM uses for production.
  • Identify AM production processes.
  • Describe AM advantages.
  • Describe AM disadvantages.
  • Describe common production uses for AM.
  • Describe AM material standards.
  • Describe AM material considerations.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
3D printing three-dimensional printing. The process of producing a 3D object using a specialized tool that creates successive layers of material. 3D printing must technically involve the use of a print head or nozzle, but the term is often used interchangeably with additive manufacturing (AM).
additive manufacturing AM. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
aluminum A lightweight metal that is silvery white in color. Aluminum resists corrosion and is a good conductor of electrical and thermal energy.
AM Additive manufacturing. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object based on a three-dimensional computer model. AM methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM. An organization that writes and updates standards for a broad range of materials, including metals. The American Society for Testing and Materials has created seven classifications for additive manufacturing (AM) processes.
ASTM The American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization that writes and updates standards for a broad range of materials, including metals. ASTM has created seven classifications for additive manufacturing (AM) processes.
binder jetting An additive manufacturing (AM) method in which liquid binder is used to join powdered materials to create parts. Binder jetting can create parts out of metal, polymer, or ceramic.
bracket A mounted support device. Brackets can be optimized through additive manufacturing (AM) methods as they impose fewer design limitations than traditional manufacturing operations.
build rates The time it takes to build a part or the number of parts that can be made in a set period of time. Build rates for additive manufacturing (AM) are considerably lower than traditional manufacturing.
computer numerical control CNC. A programmable system of software and hardware that directs the operation of a machine. Computer numerical control systems use mathematical data to direct machine movements.
customize Created specially for a specific machine or customer. Customization is a key advantage of additive manufacturing (AM).
DED Directed energy deposition. An additive manufacturing (AM) process in which focused thermal energy is used to melt materials as they are fed or blown through a nozzle. DED is often used with powdered or wire metal.
defects An imperfection in a part that prevents it from operating correctly. Defects sometimes appear in additive manufacturing (AM) parts when the layers do not adhere to each other correctly.
destructive testing A category of inspection processes that evaluate a part's properties and performance using methods that lead to part failure. Destructive testing renders a part unusable.
dimensional accuracy The ability of a part to meet the size and specifications of the intended design. Dimensional accuracy is essential for maintaining a repeatable target size when manufacturing a part.
direct metal laser sintering DMLS. An additive manufacturing (AM) process that uses a laser to bond successive layers of material in a bed of powdered metal. Direct metal laser sintering can produce complex metal parts, though they often require extensive post-processing.
directed energy deposition DED. An additive manufacturing (AM) process in which focused thermal energy is used to melt materials as they are fed or blown through a nozzle. Directed energy deposition is often used with powdered or wire metal.
end-use Designed to be used directly by a consumer or directly in another manufactured product. End-use products created by additive manufacturing (AM) include medical implants, custom dental devices, and camera equipment.
fabrication A general category of processes that produce parts by adding or joining material. Fabrication includes welding and assembly processes.
fixtures A customized workholding device used on machine tools to position and hold a part during various machining operations. A fixture is built to hold a specific part design.
grades A category, rank, or level of quality. Grades of materials are typically categorized by the specific amount of elements included in the materials.
hierarchical complexity The amount of variation allowed in the ordering of shape or material composition of a part. Hierarchical complexity allows for numerous and rapid changes in the shape and composition of a multi-scale part.
hybrid manufacturing A process that uses both traditional and additive manufacturing (AM) to create a finished part. Hybrid manufacturing can involve either using a traditional manufacturing process on a mostly additively manufactured part or vice versa
inspection The examination of a product during or after its creation to confirm that it adheres to specifications. Inspection allows manufacturers to identify and correct product defects.
International Organization for Standardization ISO. An organization based in Switzerland that develops and publishes standards for various aspects of manufacturing and industry. The International Organization for Standardization is responsible for standards across a number of different industries.
ISO International Organization for Standardization. An organization based in Switzerland that develops and publishes standards for various aspects of manufacturing and industry. ISO is responsible for standards across a number of different industries.
iterative design Process of repeatedly testing, inspecting, and improving a prototype. Iterative design typically requires many different variations to refine a part design before putting it into full production.
jigs A customizable, modular workholding device that supports, locates, and clamps a workpiece and also directs the cutting tool. Jigs are often used to hold irregular parts and generally decrease machine tool setup time as they provide guidance for tools.
joining Bringing two separate materials together through some type of forming. Joining is one of the four main ways plastics can be formed.
machining A subtractive manufacturing process that involves removing material to form an object. Machining includes methods that remove metal using cutting tools, such as milling, turning, and drilling.
material complexity In additive manufacturing, refers to build substances that can be processed specifically layer by layer. Material complex parts can differ in material composition.
material extrusion An additive manufacturing (AM) method that uses a nozzle to dispense material, usually a thermoplastic filament, onto a build platform. Material extrusion is sometimes referred to as fused deposition modeling (FDM).
material jetting An additive manufacturing (AM) method in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited onto a build platform. Material jetting systems use a photopolymer that is cured by ultraviolet (UV) light.
milling A cutting operation in which a rotating multi-point cutting tool is fed along the surface of a part to remove material. Milling operations generally produce flat surfaces.
near net-shape Having dimensions that are close to a final form after initial manufacturing steps. Near-net shape parts require little subsequent machining.
nondestructive testing A category of inspection processes that evaluate a part's properties and performance using methods that do not damage or permanently alter the part. Nondestructive testing methods can be used to locate discontinuities and defects in parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) processes.
nylon A semicrystalline thermoplastic that gains strength when the fibers are stretched. Nylon is a commonly used term for polyamides (PA).
orthopedic Relating to the branch of medicine that focuses on the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedics often uses additive manufacturing to develop implants and prosthetics.
PBF Powder bed fusion. An additive manufacturing (AM) method that uses thermal energy to fuse together layers of powdered polymer, metal, ceramic, or other material. PBF includes several processes, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS).
polylactic acid PLA. A biodegradable thermoplastic in the polyester family. Polylactic acid is a natural polymer derived from corn starch and other renewable resources.
post-processing A procedure used to clean, improve, or otherwise finish a part after it has been manufactured. Post-processing procedures include abrasive finishing, heat treatment, and painting.
powder bed fusion PBF. An additive manufacturing (AM) method that uses thermal energy to fuse together layers of powdered polymer, metal, ceramic, or other material. Powder bed fusion includes several processes, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS).
printed circuit boards PCBs. A layered construction of material used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components. Printed circuit boards use conductive pathways, or traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive surface.
prosthetics An artificial implant, device, or limb that replaces a missing body part. Prosthetics may also refer to the design, fabrication, and fitting process involved with these devices.
rapid prototyping A product development technique in which additive manufacturing (AM) methods are used to create prototypes for a traditional manufacturing operation. Rapid prototyping allows engineers to quickly create a number of prototypes in a short time period, reducing lead time.
raw material An unprocessed or lightly processed object or substance used to make a finished part. Raw materials in manufacturing include metal, plastic, and ceramic.
resin A raw polymer, usually in the form of beads or pellets, that is not yet molded into its final shape. Resin is melted to form plastic parts.
resins A raw polymer, usually in the form of beads or pellets, that is not yet molded into its final shape. Resins are melted to form plastic parts.
setup All the necessary preparation of tooling and fixturing that occurs on a machine before operation begins. Proper machine setup is an important factor in optimizing tool life.
sheet lamination An additive manufacturing (AM) process that forms an object by bonding sheets of material together using an adhesive, heat, or pressure. Sheet lamination processes melt thin sheets of material together, bonding them layer by layer, to form a single three-dimensional object.
specifications A description of the essential physical and technical properties of a finished part. Specifications outline important information including finished part dimensions and how the part must respond to forces acting upon it.
support structures Additional material used in the additive manufacturing (AM) process to support the product as it is being constructed. Support structures are removed from the AM product as part of the additive manufacturing process.
tensile testing A test that evaluates a material's tensile strength by stretching a specimen until it breaks. Tensile testing is sometimes called tension testing.
thermoplastic A group of plastics that can be repeatedly heated, cooled, and shaped. Thermoplastics are often used in material extrusion additive manufacturing (AM) processes.
three-dimensional 3D. Occurring within three planes of space. Three-dimensional objects have length, height, and width.
titanium A nonferrous metal that is lightweight corrosion resistant and has a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium is often used in the aerospace industry.
total cost of investment All the direct and indirect expenses associated with a purchase. Total cost of investment takes into account several factors including reliability, maintenance time, and replaceability in addition to initial cost.
turning A cutting operation that rotates a cylindrical workpiece while gradually passing the cutting tool along the surface of the rotating part. Turning is performed on a lathe and is commonly used to create cylindrical parts.
ultrasonic inspection A nondestructive testing method that sends high-frequency sound waves through a material to locate discontinuities. Ultrasonic inspection records data that the inspector can then interpret.
ultraviolet UV. A potentially harmful wavelength of light that is below, or shorter than, violet on the light spectrum. Ultraviolet light is used to selectively harden a photopolymer in vat photopolymerization processes.
vat photopolymerization An additive manufacturing (AM) process that traces a focused light beam over a layer of photopolymer to selectively cure it. Vat photopolymerization is often used for making softer parts that require a high degree of customization, such as dental aligners or hearing aids.
x-ray testing A nondestructive testing method in which the use of an x-ray machine to examine the interior of a completed part. X-ray testing is expensive and time-consuming and therefore is typically only used in situations where part must be perfect.