Design for Directed Energy Deposition 303

“Design for Directed Energy Deposition 303” covers the basics of directed energy deposition (DED) and important considerations for DED design. DED is a metal additive manufacturing (AM) process that is often used for part repair and adding part features, but is also used to build complete, near-net shape parts. Different types of DED may use different heat sources to melt various types of metal feedstock, including powdered metal and metal wire.

Designers and AM technicians must consider details like deposition width, metallurgy, and other important factors when producing parts with DED. After taking this course, users will understand how different DED processes, machine tools, materials, and other factors affect designing parts for DED.

Class Details

Class Name:
Design for Directed Energy Deposition 303
Difficulty:
Advanced
Number of Lessons:
14

Class Outline

  • DED and DFAM
  • DED Design and Production
  • DED Methods
  • DED Applications
  • Review: DFAM and DED Basics
  • Common DED Machine Tools
  • DED Materials
  • DED Build Parameters
  • Review: DED Materials and Processes
  • DED Slicing
  • Machine Control and DED Slicing
  • DFAM Considerations for DED Operating Conditions
  • Post-Processing and Finishing
  • Review: DED Design Considerations

Objectives

  • Describe DFAM and how it applies to directed energy deposition.
  • Describe a standard directed energy deposition process.
  • Describe important design considerations for different DED methods.
  • Describe common DED applications.
  • Distinguish between different DED machine tools.
  • Describe important design considerations for DED materials.
  • Describe build parameters that influence DED design.
  • Describe important considerations for DED slicing.
  • Describe how machine movement affects DED part design.
  • Explain how DED operating conditions affect finished parts.
  • Describe post-processing considerations for DED.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
adaptive slicing Creating an STL file with layers of varying lengths. Adaptive slicing can be used to create smoother curves for more advanced shapes in additive manufacturing.
additive manufacturing AM. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object from a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
AM Additive manufacturing. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object from a three-dimensional computer model. AM methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
argon A colorless, odorless inert gas. Argon is commonly used as shielding gas.
build rates The time it takes to build a part or the number of parts that can be made in a set period of time. Build rates, or production rates, for additive manufacturing are considerably lower than traditional manufacturing.
build resolution The amount of detail that an AM machine can build in a set amount of space. A higher build resolution means that a machine can build more detailed parts.
CAD Computer-aided design. A method of designing two- and three-dimensional objects using computers and software. CAD is most often used to create part models for production.
CNC mills A machine that uses computer numerical data to control cutting operations on flat, square, or rectangular workpieces. On a CNC mill, the cutting tool rotates against a workpiece that is fixed to a worktable.
coatings A thin layer of material added to a component to improve its properties. Coatings can reduce friction for a fastener.
computer-aided design CAD. A method of designing two- and three-dimensional objects using computers and software. Computer-aided design is most often used to create part models for production.
computer-aided manufacturing CAM. The use of computer software that facilitates the development of part programs to produce a part. Computer-aided manufacturing software applications create an image of the workpiece and develop the program code from information that the programmer inputs.
conceptualization To form an idea about a possible part or manufactured good. Conceptualization is one of the initial stages of design for manufacturing (DFM) or design for additive manufacturing (DFAM).
DED Directed energy deposition. An additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to melt materials as they are deposited. DED is often used with powdered or wire metal.
deposition head A nozzle that melts and dispenses material. Deposition heads are used in directed energy deposition (DED) processes.
deposition width The maximum width of a single layer that can be formed in a directed energy deposition process. Deposition width can vary based on the type of feedstock or the nozzle width of a deposition head.
deposition width The measured width of a layer of material as it is deposited using directed energy deposition or other extrusion-based AM methods. Greater deposition widths create lower build resolutions, while smaller widths create higher resolutions.
design for additive manufacturing DFAM. The methodology of planning, testing, and creating an additively manufactured part that functions optimally. Design for additive manufacturing allows engineers to mostly focus on part functionality.
design for manufacturing DFM. The methodology of planning, testing, and creating a part that functions correctly and is easy to manufacture. Design for manufacturing, also known as design for manufacturability, involves considering part functionality and the limits of the manufacturing process.
designing The process of creating the actual specifications for a potential part. Designing involves creating the blueprints and prototypes for a part.
directed energy deposition DED. An additive manufacturing process in which focused thermal energy is used to melt materials as they are deposited. Directed energy deposition is often used with powdered or wire metal.
EBAM Electron beam additive manufacturing. A directed energy deposition (DED) process trademarked by Sciaky, Inc. that uses an electron beam to melt materials as they are deposited on a build platform. EBAM can use either wire or powder feedstock as build materials.
electric arc The area in which electricity jumps from an electrode to a conductor to produce extreme heat and light. Electric arcs are used in thermal welding and cutting applications as well as directed energy deposition.
electron beam A narrow stream of electrons that create focused thermal energy. Electron beams are used in some additive manufacturing processes to fuse materials.
electron beam additive manufacturing EBAM. A directed energy deposition (DED) process trademarked by Sciaky, Inc. that uses an electron beam to melt materials as they are deposited on a build platform. Electron beam additive manufacturing can use either wire or powder feedstock as build materials.
electron beam freeform fabrication An additive manufacturing technology developed by NASA to build and repair aerospace parts terrestrially and in space. Electron beam freeform fabrication uses an electron beam and metal wire feedstock.
end effector The component of the robot that interacts with a part or object. End effectors perform the actual task the robot is designed to perform, such as welding, sensing, assembly, or additive manufacturing.
end-use Designed to be used directly by a consumer or directly in another manufactured product. End-use products created by AM include medical implants, custom dental devices, and camera equipment.
features A defining characteristic on a component or part. Features include corners, edges, holes, and grooves.
feedstock Raw material that is used to make manufactured parts. Feedstock for additive manufacturing methods includes filaments, pellets, wire, and powder.
feedstocks Raw material that is used to make manufactured parts. Feedstock for additive manufacturing methods includes filaments, pellets, wire, and powder.
five-axis Machine control that can execute movement in five general directions concurrently. Five-axis machines can move machine tools along three linear axes while turning the workpiece around two additional rotational axes.
forging A metalworking process that involves compressing bulk metal at elevated temperatures. Forging creates very strong parts but can also leave raised sections that must be smoothed out.
four-axis Machine control that can execute movement along four axes concurrently. Four axis machines can move machine tools along three linear axes while turning the workpiece around an additional rotational axis.
fusion deposition modeling FDM. A material extrusion process that builds parts through extruding successive layers of material. Fused deposition modeling is one of the most accessible and affordable types of additive manufacturing (AM), though it creates parts with poor surface finish and has relatively low build speed.
G code A method of programming that pairs address letters with numerical values to form words. G code programs are used in additive manufacturing, CNC machining, and hybrid machining.
grinding A subtractive manufacturing process that shapes parts, improves surface finish, and brings parts into close tolerance. Grinding is used as a post-processing procedure in additive manufacturing.
heat treatment A controlled heating and cooling process used to change the structure of a material and alter its physical and mechanical properties. Heat treatment is often used to improve the hardness and durability of an additively manufactured part.
heat-affected zone HAZ. The portion of metal that has not been melted, but has mechanical properties that have been altered by the heat of welding or additive manufacturing. The heat-affected zone can be limited through heat treatments.
hybrid machining center A type of CNC machine that is capable of both additive manufacturing and traditional subtractive machining. Hybrid machining centers typically resemble the basic structure of a traditional CNC mill.
hybrid manufacturing A manufacturing approach that produces parts by combining multiple manufacturing processes in a single digital workflow or on a single machine. Hybrid manufacturing may describe a variety of manufacturing process combinations but is most often associated with combining additive and subtractive processes.
inverse relationship An association in which the value of one variable increases while the value of the other variable decreases, and vice versa. An inverse relationship is also called a negative relationship.
laser An intense beam of light that can be precisely aimed and controlled. Lasers are sometimes used to selectively solidify or fuse materials in additive manufacturing methods, including directed energy deposition, powder bed fusion, and vat photopolymerization.
laser cladding The process of fusing a layer of material onto a part surface using a laser. Laser cladding fuses together metallurgically, creating a more durable bond than traditional cladding methods.
laser metal deposition LMD. A directed energy deposition process that uses a laser beam to melt powdered metal as it is deposited onto a build platform. Laser metal deposition is sometimes referred to as laser powder forming.
LMD Laser metal deposition. A directed energy deposition process that uses a laser beam to melt powdered metal as it is deposited onto a build platform. Laser metal deposition is sometimes referred to as laser powder forming.
material hoppers A container used to hold raw materials for use in an industrial process. Material hoppers used in metal AM processes hold powdered metal.
mechanical properties A characteristic that describes how a material reacts when subjected to a force that attempts to stretch, compress, bend, dent, scratch, or break it. Mechanical properties include strength, toughness, ductility, and hardness.
melt pool An area of liquefied material, usually metal. Melt pools are created in directed energy deposition (DED) in order to fuse powdered metal or metal wire in layers to form a solid part.
metal alloys A metal consisting of a mix of two or more elements, one of which must be a metal. Alloys include cast iron and different types of steels.
metal matrix composites MMCs. A composite made from a metallic matrix and high-performance reinforcements. Metal matrix composites have high levels of strength, stiffness, and relatively high resistance to heat.
metallurgy The technique or science of separating metals from their ores, creating alloys, and altering their properties. Metallurgy is an important competency required in order to utilize different metals effectively to optimize additive manufacturing technology.
microstructure The shape and alignment of the microscopic components of a metal. A material's microstructure determines its hardness, toughness, and other properties.
multi-axis Able to move along more than one linear axis, including additional rotational axes. A multi-axis CNC cutting table is able to cut complex shapes on multiple axes, instead of just straight lines.
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A civil government organization concerned with the national space program, aeronautics, and related research. NASA is the largest civil consumer of US aerospace products.
near-net shape A part with dimensions that are close to its final specified form after initial manufacturing steps. Near-net shape parts require little subsequent machining.
overhanging features Structures on a part that extend without support beneath them. Overhanging features beyond a 45-degree angle typically require support structures in most additive processes.
planning Assessing the ways to best create a conceptualized part. Planning is a phase in the design process that involves initial considerations of the part design and practical concerns related to the manufacturing process.
plasma arc A stream of plasma used to cut a metal workpiece. The plasma arc, also known as a cutting arc, is formed by an electrode ionizing air or another gas pumped into the torch and heating it to a high temperature.
post-processing A finishing process used to clean, grind, or otherwise prepare a manufactured part for shipping to a manufacturer or other consumer. Common additive manufacturing post-processing steps include removing support structures, improving surface finish, and bringing the part into tolerance.
powdered metal A metallic powder that is often used as a build material in additive manufacturing (AM). Powdered metal is stored in a material hopper and deposited through a nozzle or print head to build a part layer by layer in AM applications.
production The manufacturing of a finished part for delivery to a customer. Production is the final stage of design for manufacturing (DFM).
properties The characteristics of a material that distinguish it from other materials. A material's melting point is an example of a property.
residual stress Internal pressure or tension that remains in an object or substance after the original load or force has been removed. Residual stress can cause deformation, warping, or failure.
resolution The fineness of detail in a computer-aided design (CAD) model and the layer thickness and level of detail that an AM tool can produce. Resolution helps determine the surface finish quality of an additively manufactured part, with greater resolution leading to better surface finish.
robotic arms A programmable or remote-controlled mechanical device that simulates the movement of a human arm. Robotic arms are used in a variety of assembly and manufacturing applications.
rocket nozzles A component on a rocket engine through which gases expand so the rocket can accelerate. Rocket nozzles may be made of various metals and can be constructed using directed energy deposition (DED).
sanding A form of grinding that uses a fine grain abrasive to remove small amounts of material. Sanding improves the finish of a surface.
shielding gas A gas that surrounds and protects melted metal from oxidation by preventing oxygen from reaching the metal. Shielding gases are used in some directed energy deposition systems.
shot peening A finishing method that uses a propelled stream of round shot beads to cold work metal surfaces. Shot peening corrects minor surface defects and strengthens the material.
shrinkage The reduction in size that a part experiences as it contracts while cooling after intense heat. Shrinkage can change the microstructure of metal and plastic parts.
slicer A computer program that divides an STL file into layers for additive manufacturing (AM). Slicers, or slicing programs, can either be separate computer programs or part of the machine interface.
STL An additive manufacturing (AM) compatible file format that represents 3D models as a series of interconnected triangles. STL files are sometimes referred to as stereolithography files, standard tessellation language files, or standard transform language files.
substrate A surface or medium that serves as a base for other materials or components. Some directed energy deposition processes deposit materials onto substrates rather than a build platform.
subtractive manufacturing Any manufacturing process in which a piece of raw material is machined into a desired final shape through a controlled material removal process. Subtractive manufacturing methods are fast but create a large amount of waste.
support structures A reinforcing component used to hold the weight of an additively manufactured part as it is being constructed. Support structures are removed from the part once the build is complete.
testing The examination of a part to ensure that it performs its intended function and that it can be satisfactorily manufactured. Testing is a design step that indicates whether the part needs additional planning or if it is ready for production.
thermal energy source A device that generates power in the form of heat. Thermal energy sources, such as devices that generate electron beams, lasers, and plasma arcs, are used during some additive manufacturing methods.
three-axis Machine control that can execute movement in three general directions concurrently. Three-axis machines move machine tools along three linear axes.
traditional manufacturing A manufacturing process that involves creating a part by shaping or removing material from a workpiece. Traditional manufacturing operations include metal cutting and forming.
uniform slicing Creating an STL file with layers of equal thickness. Normal slicing is used to create basic shapes in additive manufacturing.
WAAM Wire arc additive manufacturing. A directed energy deposition (DED) process that uses an electric arc and a shielding gas to melt materials as they are deposited onto a build platform. WAAM typically uses wire feedstock.
wire arc additive manufacturing WAAM. A directed energy deposition (DED) process that uses an electric arc and a shielding gas to melt materials as they are deposited onto a build platform. Wire arc additive manufacturing typically uses wire feedstock.