Design for Sheet Lamination 307

“Design for Sheet Lamination 307” introduces design considerations for various sheet lamination methods. Sheet lamination is an additive manufacturing (AM) method that stacks sheets of material to build parts according to a computer-aided design file. Most sheet lamination machines add and cut each successive sheet into the part shape until the build is complete. Different sheet lamination machines may use different materials to create prototypes or end-use parts.

After taking this course, users will be able to identify different sheet lamination methods and basic design considerations for each one. Part designers and manufacturers must be familiar with the capabilities and limitations of each sheet lamination method in order to determine the appropriate methods and materials for specific applications.

Class Details

Class Name:
Design for Sheet Lamination 307
Difficulty:
Advanced
Number of Lessons:
10

Class Outline

  • Sheet Lamination and DFAM
  • Sheet Lamination Materials
  • Sheet Lamination Applications
  • DFAM Considerations for Sheet Lamination
  • Review: DFAM for Sheet Lamination
  • Sheet Lamination Prototyping Methods
  • Sheet Lamination Production Methods
  • Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing
  • Post-Processing for Sheet Lamination
  • Review: Sheet Lamination Processes

Objectives

  • Describe DFAM and how it applies to sheet lamination.
  • Describe common materials used in sheet lamination processes.
  • Describe common sheet lamination applications.
  • Distinguish between advantages and disadvantages of sheet lamination.
  • Describe sheet lamination methods used for prototyping.
  • Describe sheet lamination methods for end-use production.
  • Describe ultrasonic additive manufacturing.
  • Describe post-processing requirements for sheet lamination.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
abrasive finishing The use of an abrasive, such as sandpaper, to polish and smooth the surface of a part. Abrasive finishing is commonly used to improve the surface finish of an additively manufactured part.
additive manufacturing AM. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object from a three-dimensional computer model. Additive manufacturing methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
adhesive A substance, such as glue, that bonds two surfaces together. Adhesives are used in some sheet lamination operations to fuse part layers.
aerospace The industry concerned with the research, design, manufacture, and operation of air and space craft. Aerospace products include airplanes, helicopters, rockets, missiles, satellites, space capsules, space planes, and related systems.
aluminum A lightweight metal that is silvery white in color. Aluminum resists corrosion and is a good conductor of electrical and thermal energy.
AM Additive manufacturing. The process of joining or solidifying materials to make an object from a three-dimensional computer model. AM methods typically build up layers of material to create an object.
build platform The flat surface on which a part is additively manufactured. The build platform on a sheet lamination machine lowers as each layer of the part is completed.
CAD Computer-aided design. A method of designing two- and three-dimensional objects using computers and software. CAD is most often used to create part models for production.
CAM-LEM Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Laminated Engineering Materials. A sheet lamination process that cuts each layer of a part separately, then stacks and bonds them to build a final part. CAM-LEM is a proprietary technology of CAM-LEM, Inc.
carbon fiber A material made from slender, thread-like strands of carbon, a strong nonmetallic element. Carbon fiber is a rigid material with good tensile strength, chemical resistance, and temperature tolerance.
CBAM Composite-Based Additive Manufacturing. A sheet lamination process that stacks and cuts composite sheets of material into layers successively and uses heat, pressure, and binding material to form a solid part. CBAM is a proprietary technology of Impossible Objects, Inc.
cement A particulate composite usually composed of clay and limestone. Cement can be used to make mortar, concrete, or other substances depending on how it is mixed.
ceramic A hard, brittle material that can withstand high temperatures and resist corrosion. Ceramics, which include metal oxides, nitrides, and glasses, are sometimes used as build material in additive manufacturing.
ceramic matrix composites CMCs. A composite made from a ceramic matrix and reinforcement materials. Ceramic matrix composites are stiff, lightweight, and can withstand extremely high temperatures.
composite A material composed of two or more unlike materials that are bonded together without losing their individual properties or characteristics. Composites consist of a matrix material and a reinforcement material.
composite-based additive manufacturing CBAM. A sheet lamination process that stacks and cuts composite sheets of material into layers successively and uses heat, pressure, and powdered material bond layers into a solid part. Composite-Based Additive Manufacturing is a proprietary technology of Impossible Objects, Inc.
computer-aided design CAD. A method of designing two- and three-dimensional objects using computers and software. Computer-aided design is most often used to create part models for production.
conceptualization To form an idea about a possible part or manufactured good. Conceptualization is the initial stage of design for manufacturing (DFM) and design for additive manufacturing (DFAM).
conformal cooling A feature in a part or component in which internal cooling channel configurations closely correspond to the shape of a part. Conformal cooling allows a part to cool more uniformly, improving heat management, which can improve overall part quality.
corrosion A process by which a material gradually degrades or wears away. Corrosion typically occurs when a material is exposed to atmosphere, moisture, or other substances.
design for additive manufacturing DFAM. The methodology of planning, testing, and creating an additively manufactured part that functions optimally. Design for additive manufacturing allows engineers to mostly focus on part functionality.
designing The process of creating the actual specifications for a potential part. Designing involves creating the prints and prototypes for a part.
drills A multi-point cutting tool used to create a round hole in a workpiece surface. Drills are common tools for holemaking operations.
drones A compact mobile robot that can be guided through programming or the use of a remote control. Drones used in aerospace and military applications often fly, swim, or both.
ductile A material's ability to be drawn, stretched, or formed without breaking. Ductile materials bend easily but resist fracture.
end mills A milling cutter that performs a mix of peripheral and face milling with its bottom and side cutting edges. End mills can be used to machine grooves, slots, circular slots, and pockets, among other features.
end-use Designed to be used directly by a consumer or directly in another manufactured product. End-use products created by additive manufacturing include medical implants, custom dental devices, and camera equipment.
feedstock Raw material that is used to make manufactured parts. Feedstock for additive manufacturing methods includes filaments, pellets, wire, powder, and material sheets.
feedstock roll The cylindrical mechanism on a sheet lamination machine that holds and dispenses thin sheets of build material. Feedstock rolls often hold rolls of paper, polymer, or metal.
grinders A machine that uses an abrasive to remove material from the surface of a workpiece. Grinders commonly use abrasive grains bonded into a wheel shape to remove small amounts of material in order to improve surface finish.
heat treatment A controlled heating and cooling process used to change the structure of a material and alter its physical and mechanical properties. Heat treatments are sometimes used to improve the properties of additively manufactured parts.
housings A protective cover designed to contain or support a component. Housings may be used to enclose electric motors, gear drives, or other components.
hybrid manufacturing A manufacturing approach that produces parts by combining multiple manufacturing processes in a single digital workflow or on a single machine. Hybrid manufacturing may describe a variety of manufacturing process combinations but is most often associated with combining additive and subtractive processes.
inkjet A device on a traditional printer that emits ink. Some additive manufacturing machines use an inkjet to create the shape of each part layer.
Laminated Object Manufacturing LOM. A sheet lamination process that cuts part features into material sheets using a laser or metal cutting tool and applies an adhesive to the full surface of the material sheets to bond them together. Laminated Object Manufacturing most frequently uses paper material sheets but can also use thermoplastic and composite material sheets.
laser An intense beam of coherent, collimated, monochromatic light that can be precisely aimed and controlled. Laser can be used for cutting, welding, and other manufacturing processes.
layer thickness The amount of material deposited or solidified into a single layer in one pass of an additive manufacturing (AM) process. Layer thickness helps determine build rates, with thicker layers resulting in fast build rates but less accurate parts.
LOM Laminated Object Manufacturing. A sheet lamination process that uses an adhesive to bond successive layers of material together to build a final part. LOM most frequently uses paper as build material but can also use thermoplastic and composite sheets.
metal A naturally occurring material with high electric and thermal conductivity, luster, density, and strength. Metals include copper, iron, nickel, and lead.
metal alloys A material consisting of a mix of two or more elements, one of which must be a metal. Metal alloys include cast iron and different types of steels.
metal matrix composites MMCs. A composite made from a metallic matrix and high-performance reinforcements. Metal matrix composites have high levels of strength, stiffness, and relatively high resistance to heat.
microfluidic devices A small ceramic component that transfers and digitally processes fluids that can be measured in micrometers. Microfluidic devices can be built using ceramic additive manufacturing methods and are often used in medical applications.
microstructure The shape and alignment of microscopic components in a material. Microstructure influences the properties of a material.
molds A hollow cavity that holds heated liquid and imparts its shape on the material as it cools. Molds with complex geometry can be created using sheet lamination and other additive manufacturing processes.
non-functional prototypes A physical model that can represent the scale and appearance of the part or component does not preform functional uses of the part. Non-functional prototypes can be created with sheet lamination and other AM methods.
nylon An artificial material made from polymers. Nylon rope is very strong, flexible, and resilient.
overhanging features Structures on a part that extend without support beneath them. Overhanging features beyond a 45-degree angle typically require support structures in most additive processes.
planning Assessing the ways to best create a conceptualized part. Planning is a phase in the design process that involves initial considerations of the part design and practical concerns related to the manufacturing process.
Plastic Sheet Lamination PSL. A sheet lamination process that uses heat to bond successive layers of polymer materials together without applying an additional adhesive. Plastic Sheet Lamination is typically used for rapid prototyping.
polyetheretherketone PEEK. An organic thermoplastic polymer used to fabricate items for high-performance applications. Polyetheretherketone is extensively used in the aerospace, automotive, teletronic, and chemical process industries.
polymer A lightweight material that generally has high corrosion resistance, a high strength-to-weight ratio, and a low melting point. Polymers, or plastics, are some of the most common manufacturing materials.
polypropylene A thermoplastic polymer used as a resin for traditional composites. Polypropylene is economical, versatile, and very lightweight.
polystyrene A thermoplastic that can be molded or foamed. Polystyrene is often used in insulation.
polyurethane A thermoset polymer that is versatile and wear-resistant. Polyurethane is used in resins for adhesives, elastomers, and fillers.
post-processing A group of procedures that are used to clean, improve, or otherwise finish a part for use by a manufacturer or consumer. Post-processing for additively manufactured parts includes abrasive finishing, heat treatment, and painting.
powdered Turned into a collection of small, uniform, and separate particles. Powdered materials are fused together into solid part in powder bed fusion (PBF) and other additive manufacturing (AM) processes.
power sanders A handheld electric tool that uses an abrasive to smooth the surface of an object. Power sanders are often used in post-processing for additive manufacturing.
production The manufacturing of a finished part for delivery to a customer. Production is the final stage of design for manufacturing (DFM).
prototype A preliminary model of a part used to evaluate the look and performance of a design. Prototypes are used to determine the specifications for the final part.
PSL Plastic Sheet Lamination. A sheet lamination process that uses heat to bond successive layers of polymer materials together without applying an additional adhesive. PSL is typically used for rapid prototyping.
rapid prototyping A product development technique that uses additive manufacturing methods to create a part model. Rapid prototyping allows manufacturers to quickly create functional part models in a short time period, reducing lead time.
resolution The fineness of detail on a part specified in a computer-aided design (CAD) model. Resolution helps determine the surface finish of an additively manufactured part, with greater resolution leading to better surface finish.
Selective Deposition Lamination SDL. A sheet lamination process that cuts part features into material sheets using a laser or metal cutting tool and applies an adhesive in select areas of the material sheets to bond them together. Selective Deposition Lamination most frequently uses paper and only bonds areas of the sheets that will form the part rather than bonding entire material sheets together.
sheet lamination An additive manufacturing method that forms a part layer by layer by bonding sheets of material together using an adhesive, heat, pressure, or ultrasonic vibrations. Sheet lamination methods include Laminated Object Manufacturing, Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing, and other processes.
SLCOM Selective Lamination Composite Object Manufacturing. A sheet lamination process that cuts sheets of material into layers of a part separately before stacking and bonding the layers into a solid object. SLCOM is a proprietary technology of EnvisionTEC, Inc.
sonotrode A tool on an ultrasonic welding or additive manufacturing (AM) machine that transmits ultrasonic vibrations. The sonotrode on a UAM machine helps create the friction to bond surfaces together.
specifications A description of the essential physical and technical properties of a finished part. Specifications outline important information including finished part dimensions and how the part must respond to forces acting upon it.
specifications A detailed plan for a part or object that includes dimensions and other precise descriptions of its manufacturing requirements. Specifications are typically created using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
steel A metal made primarily of iron and carbon that is alloyed with small amounts of other elements. Steels often contain elements such as manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon to enhance various properties of the metal.
subtractive manufacturing A manufacturing process that machines a piece of raw material into a desired final shape through a controlled material removal process. Subtractive manufacturing methods are fast but create a large amount of waste.
support structures A reinforcing component used to hold the weight of an additively manufactured part as it is being constructed. Support structures are removed from the part once the build is complete.
testing The examination of a part to ensure that it performs its intended function and that it can be satisfactorily manufactured. Testing is a design step that indicates whether the part needs additional planning or if it is ready for production.
thermoplastics A type of polymer that can be repeatedly heated, shaped, and cooled. Thermoplastics are sometimes used in additive manufacturing processes, including sheet lamination.
thermosets A type of plastic, also known as thermosetting plastics, that cannot be reheated or re-formed after their initial heating. Thermosets are sometimes used in additive manufacturing processes, including sheet lamination.
titanium A nonferrous metal that is lightweight and corrosion resistant and has a high strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium and its alloys are often used in the aerospace industry.
tolerance An unwanted but acceptable deviation from a desired dimension. Tolerances indicate the allowable difference between a physical feature and its intended design.
ultrasonic A frequency above the range of human hearing. Ultrasonic vibrations are used to bond sheets of metal in Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM).
ultrasonic additive manufacturing UAM. A sheet lamination process that uses high-frequency vibrations to bond successive layers of material together to build a final part. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing, also known as Ultrasonic Consolidation, most frequently uses sheets of metal foil or tape as build material.
ultrasonic consolidation A sheet lamination process that uses high-frequency vibrations to bond successive layers of material together to build a final part. Ultrasonic Consolidation, also known as Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), most frequently uses sheets of metal foil or tape as build material.
woven fibers Thin strands of material stitched tightly together. Woven fibers may improve strength and other mechanincal properties of the material compared to unwoven fibers.