Intro to Machine Rigging 110

This class covers basic rigging equipment, calculating loads, inspecting equipment, and following safety precautions.

Class Details

Class Name:
Intro to Machine Rigging 110
Number of Lessons:
Additional Language:

Class Outline

  • Objectives
  • What Is Rigging?
  • Basic Lifting Devices
  • Jacking Devices
  • Heavy Lifting Devices
  • Ropes
  • Chains
  • Slings
  • Attachment Devices
  • Eye Splices
  • Knots, Hitches, and Lashings
  • Load Calculation
  • Safety
  • Inspection
  • Summary


  • Define machine rigging.
  • Describe basic lifting devices.
  • Describe jacks.
  • Distinguish between cranes, gantry cranes, and derricks.
  • Describe the characteristics of rope.
  • Describe the characteristics of chains.
  • List the different types of slings.
  • Distinguish between hooks, eyebolts, and shackles.
  • Describe eye splices.
  • Distinguish between knots, hitches, and lashings.
  • Explain how to calculate a load.
  • Describe basic safety precautions for rigging.
  • Describe rigging inspection procedures.



Vocabulary Term Definition
alloy steel chain sling A sling made from steel and consisting of a master hook, chain links, and sling hooks. Alloy steel chain slings are the strongest type of sling.
American National Standards Institute A private organization that sets voluntary standards for commercial products and services. Riggers must follow all ANSI standards for safety and inspection.
bend A type of knot that is used to join two pieces of rope.
block and tackle A moveable pulley that is used to raise and lower loads.
boom A timber or metal section of a strut that has its lower end hinged or pivoted at a fixed location on the mast while its upper end is supported by chains, ropes, or rods. A boom is necessary for lifting with hoists and ropes.
breaking strength The point at which a rope will break from stress. The breaking strength is a measure of a rope's ability to carry a load beyond its working load limit.
breech The side opening on a moveable pulley that provides access to the sheave.
bridge The part of the crane that carries the trolley. Bridges consist of girders, trucks, end ties, footwalks, and the drive mechanism that carries the trolley.
center of gravity The point on a body at which the weight is distributed equally in every direction.
chain A series of linked metal rings that are fitted together. Chains can lift heavy loads and are resistant to abrasion and corrosion.
clamp An end fitting used to secure hardware to the end of a rope.
compound block and tackle A pulley system that consists of two or more ropes with two or more blocks. A compound system is made up of two or more simple systems.
cordage Any type of fiber rope. Cordage can be natural or synthetic.
cotton A soft material that comes from the cotton plant. Cotton has the lowest strength of all fiber rope, but it can withstand a great deal of bending.
crane A machine for lifting and moving extremely heavy loads. A crane provides both vertical and horizontal movement of heavy and oversized loads.
Dacron A type of polyester. Rope made from Dacron is heavier than nylon rope, but not as strong.
derrick A lifting device with a mast held at the head with guys or braces. Derricks come with or without a boom for use with a hoisting mechanism and operating ropes.
drum A large, cylindrical device used to wind and unwind ropes and chains.
eye hook A commonly used type of hook with a forged opening at one end. Eye hooks can come with or without a latch.
eye splice A type of splice that is used to make a permanent loop at the end of a rope.
eyebolt A threaded bolt with a forged hole or loop at one end.
fail In mechanics, failure refers to the deformation and eventual rupture of an object under stress. A failed component no longer function properly and often poses a safety hazard.
fiber A thin, elongated piece of material that, when combined with other pieces of fiber, can be twisted to form a yarn.
fiber rope Rope made from plants such as hemp and cotton.
fulcrum A pivot point of a lever, or the point around which an object turns.
gantry crane A crane with a bridge supported on two or more legs running parallel on fixed rails.
grade designation A standardized measure of the chain's strength.
hemp A coarse material that comes from hemp plants. Hemp was one of the first materials used to make rope for rigging.
hitch A type of knot that forms a noose around an object such as a pipe or a post in order to secure it. Hitches are meant to be temporary and therefore can be undone easily.
hoist A lifting device that exerts vertical forces for lifting and lowering, usually from a position that is directly above the load.
hook A curved piece of hardware that is used to suspend or hold something.
hydraulic jack A type of jack that has a pump plunger that forces a fluid through a cylinder.
jack A tool used for lifting large or heavy objects. Jacks are used for items that cannot, or should not, be lifted with a crane or hoist.
J-hook A hook in the shape of the letter "J." J-hooks are designed for use with chains, hoists, and slings.
jib hoist A hoist with a boom for added length for lifting specified loads. The jib may be in line with the boom or offset at various angles.
knot A fastening that is formed by tying a rope to another object or to itself. A good knot should be easy to tie and untie, and it should hold without slipping.
lashing A rope, cord, or chain that is used to fasten two objects together securely.
lay The direction in which the strands of a rope are twisted.
lever A type of simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that pivots on a fulcrum. Levers are used to transmit motion and alter mechanical advantage.
lift capacity The maximum lifting force of the jack.
lift stroke The difference between the fully retracted and fully extended positions of the jack.
load The opposition to applied force, such as a weight to be carried or moved.
Manila A material that comes from the leaves of the abaca, a type of banana tree that grows in the Philippines.
maximum height The distance from the base of the jack to the lifting element when it is fully extended.
metal mesh sling A sling with fabric made of spiral, welded, or brazed wire or chain and cross rods.
millwright A person who specializes in rigging. Millwrights oversee rigging, moving, installing, and leveling heavy equipment.
minimum height The distance from the base of the jack to the lifting element when it is fully retracted.
moveable pulley A circular lever that rotates around the fulcrum. A block and tackle is an example of a moveable pulley.
natural fiber rope sling A sling made of conventional three-strand-construction fiber rope. Manila is a common natural fiber material used in slings.
nylon An artificial material made from polymers. Nylon rope is stronger and more resilient than natural fiber rope.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration A government agency dedicated to reducing injuries, illnesses, and deaths in the workplace. Riggers must follow all OSHA standards for inspection and care of equipment.
overhand knot A simple type of fastening in which a rope is twisted into a loop, and one end of the rope is inserted through the loop.
overhead crane A crane with a movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed runway structure.
overhead hoist A hoisting mechanism used with an overhead lifting device, such as a crane.
pin A cylindrical metal component used to close a shackle for rigging applications.
pulley A rotating circular device that is used to raise or lower a load or transmit motion. A block and tackle is a type of pulley.
ratchet jack A type of jack with a lever that raises the jack up or down with each downstroke.
rigging The process of lifting and moving heavy loads with ropes, chains, and mechanical devices.
rigging equipment The hardware, tools, and machines used for moving loads.
rope A length of fibers or wires that are twisted together for strength. Ropes are used for pulling, connecting, and securing.
screw jack A type of jack that consists of a threaded cylinder that is moved up or down when the handle of the jack is turned.
shackle A U-shaped piece of metal that is closed at the end with a pin or bolt.
sheave The freely moving wheel that is part of a moveable pulley. The sheave usually contains a groove to hold a rope or chain.
shell The outer covering on a moveable pulley.
shoulder eyebolt An eyebolt used for increased strength when side forces impact the load during lifting.
simple block and tackle A pulley system that consists of a single line with one or more blocks.
sisal A material that comes from plants. Sisal is not as strong or durable as Manila.
sling A loop of material, which connects the load to the lifting device. Slings can be made of chain, wire, metal mesh, natural, and synthetic materials.
splicing A method of joining two ends of rope by unlaying the strands, placing the rope ends together, and interweaving the strands.
standard eyebolt An eyebolt without a shoulder that is used only for vertical lifting.
strand A thread made by twisting fibers together.
synthetic fiber rope sling A sling made of conventional three strand construction synthetic materials such as nylon, polyester, and polypropylene.
synthetic fibers Fibers made from nylon, Dacron, or other artificially made materials.
synthetic web sling A sling made of conventional three strand construction synthetic materials such as nylon, polyester, and polypropylene.
thimble A pear-shaped piece of hardware used to reinforce the loop in an eye splice. Thimbles protect the rope from damage.
thread A raised, helical rib or ridge around the interior or exterior of a cylindrically shaped object. Threads are found on screws, nuts, and bolts and are used to fit parts or provide motion.
timber hitch A type of fastening in which a rope forms a noose around an object, and the end of the rope is looped several times through the noose to secure it.
trolley The unit which travels on the bridge rails of a crane and carries the hoisting mechanism.
vegetable fibers Plant fibers such as Manila and sisal.
wedge socket A type of fitting that can be installed and removed quickly and easily.
wire A thin, elongated piece of metal. Strands of wire are twisted together to make wire rope.
wire rope Rope made from strands of steel or iron. Wire rope is used for jobs that require the rope to be extremely strong and resistant to abrasion.
wire rope sling A sling composed of wire rope that is either, braided, bridled, cable laid, or strand laid.
working load limit The maximum load that the rope is designed to carry.