Introduction to Digital Twin 241

"Introduction to Digital Twin 241" provides an overview of the features, benefits, and current uses of digital twins in manufacturing. Digital twins are dynamic virtual models of physical assets. Using smart sensors embedded in the physical asset, digital twins are able to provide real-time design and performance insights, helping improve operations, develop better parts and products, and test parts and machines throughout production. Artificial intelligence, machine learning, the cloud, and data sharing along the digital thread is making digital twins more powerful.

As the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and smart technology drives Industry 4.0, an increasing number of manufacturing applications will use digital twins. Understanding the basics of digital twin technology will help manufacturers utilize them effectively. After taking this class, users will be able to describe what digital twins are, how they function and are used, and identify the different types.

Class Details

Class Name:
Introduction to Digital Twin 241
Difficulty:
Intermediate
Number of Lessons:
9

Class Outline

  • Digital Twin
  • Digital Twin: Functions
  • Digital Twin: Uses
  • Review: Overview of Digital Twins
  • Virtual Test: Parts
  • Virtual Test: Machines
  • Making Digital Twins
  • Different Types of Digital Twins
  • Review: Features of Digital Twins

Objectives

  • Define digital twin.
  • Explain how a digital twin functions.
  • Explain the uses of a digital twin.
  • Describe using a digital twin to virtually test a part.
  • Describe using a digital twin to virtually test a machine.
  • Explain how digital twins are made.
  • Describe the different types of digital twins.

Job Roles

Certifications

Glossary

Vocabulary Term Definition
3D Three-dimensional. Having a length, depth, and width. Creating 3D digital models of an asset is the first stage of a digital twin.
algorithms A mathematical process designed to systematically solve a problem. Complex digital algorithms allow machine learning to predict and regulate operations.
artificial intelligence AI. A computer program with algorithms that function as behavioral rules, allowing a machine or computer to imitate intelligent human behavior. Artificial intelligence is able to discern and learn from its experiences in order to make optimized decisions during the operation or for subsequent processes.
asset Anything of value, such as a part, device, or machine, that's useful in manufacturing. Assets exist in the real world but can be represented virtually.
asset twin A type of digital twin that represents an entire machine. Asset twins can also monitor and collect data from multiple component twins.
bearing A friction-reducing device that allows one moving part to glide past another moving part. Bearings are a type of component that can be monitored using a component twin.
cloud computing The practice of using software and storing data on remote servers that can be accessed through the internet. Cloud computing allows manufacturers to upload data and then relay it to a digital twin
CNC Computer numerical control. A combination of software and hardware that directs the operation of a machine. Computer numerical control machines are used for many manufacturing operations, such as cutting and grinding metal parts.
cognitive twin A type of digital twin that is capable of making prototypes and decisions all on its own. Cognitive twins are not currently used, but technological advancements may make them available for use in the near future.
component twin A type of digital twin that represents a specific part within a machine. Component twins are often used for parts, such as bearings or rotors, that play a vital role in machine operation.
computer numerical control CNC. A combination of software and hardware that directs the operation of a machine. Computer numerical control machines are used for many manufacturing operations, such as cutting and grinding metal parts.
computer-aided design CAD. A computer software program that aids in the automated design and technical precision drawing of a part, product, process, or building. CAD can create three-dimensional (3D) digital models used for digital twins.
connectivity The capability of computer systems and devices to share information across networks. Connectivity is a key aspect of digital manufacturing.
control panel The device on a CNC machine that runs, stores, and edits the commands of a part program and other coordinate information. Control panels, or controls, typically have a keypad and display screen.
cooling The process of drawing heat away from the work area through the use of fluids. Cooling helps prevent heat damage to a workpiece.
cutting tools Devices with one or more edges that is designed to cut metal. Cutting tools are often designed for use on a metal-cutting machine, such as a CNC lathe or mill.
data tracking The practice of using hardware, software, and the internet to organize, process, and communicate valuable information gathered from the production process. Data-tracking can provide information to a digital twin in real time.
digital model An electronic, three-dimensional (3D) version of a part or other device. Digital models allow designers or engineers to create a variety of parts on the computer before creating the physical part.
digital thread An integrated view of all the data and information about a machine or process throughout its lifecycle. The digital thread connects information from all aspects of a product into one seamless network.
digital twin A virtual representation of a physical asset or part. A digital twin evolves with the asset throughout its product lifecycle.
dynamic Something capable of constant change and continuous productivity. Dynamic models like digital twins are improvements on traditional 3D models with limited capabilities.
engineers The specialists responsible for determining the exact specifications for machines, parts, or other technically complex components or features. Engineers often play a big role in developing and improving products using digital twins.
feed rates The rate at which a cutting tool and/or workpiece move in relation to one another during a machining operation. Feed rates vary and must be maintained according to the design of a given part.
geometric coordinates A series of numerical positions that describe any point of an object in three-dimensional space. Geometric coordinates can describe the size and shape of a part, as well as indicate the exact position of a tool in a machining process.
Industrial Internet of Things IIoT. A network of physical devices used in manufacturing that contain computing systems that allow them to send and receive data. The Industrial Internet of Things allows devices to exchange data and automate processes without any human intervention.
inspection The examination of a part during or after its creation to confirm that it adheres to specifications. Inspection allows manufacturers to identify and correct product defects.
laser scanner A portable measuring device that uses a beam of light to measure an object's geometric shape. A laser scanner is sometimes used to create a three-dimensional (3D) model.
machine learning ML. The process that enables a digital system to analyze data in order to build predictive models and make decisions autonomously. Machine learning is a key benefit of Industry 4.0.
machine learning ML. The process that enables a digital system to analyze data in order to build predictive models and make decisions autonomously. Machine learning systematically solves problems using highly complex algorithms.
machinists A person responsible for operating a machine to create a part. Machinists are also responsible for ensuring the machine performs its job correctly, efficiently, and safely.
maintenance Any activity that contributes to the care and upkeep of machines or equipment. Maintenance approaches can involve monitoring equipment for problems or fixing a machine after it breaks down.
mathematical model A very precise representation of part or other asset based on numerical calculations. A mathematical model is necessary for creating digital twins that act as prototypes.
measurement data Information that depicts the true height, depth, and width of a part or machine. Measurement data is necessary for creating an accurate digital model.
ML Machine learning. The process that enables a digital system analyze data in order to build predictive models and make decisions autonomously. ML systematically solves problems using highly complex algorithms.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA. A civil government organization concerned with the national space program, aeronautics, and related research. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was the first to use digital twins.
operational constraints The limitations related to effectively and efficiently running a manufacturing process. Operational constraints are important to understand as they impact creating parts and using machines and systems.
optimize To improve a process to the point where it is as effective and functional as it can be. Manufacturers can more effectively optimize production using a digital twin.
physics The branch of science that studies how matter, energy, and forces interact. Physics is a highly specialized field necessary for determining the physical properties and composition needed to build a part.
predictive twin A type of digital twin that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze data and report on potential problems and opportunities in the manufacturing process. Predictive twins are a more recent development in digital twin technology.
preventative maintenance PM. A type of maintenance performed while a component is in working order to keep it from breaking down. Preventive maintenance may include lubricating, tightening, and replacing worn parts.
process twin A type of digital twin that represents the operations and activities of a manufacturing process. Process twins may gather data from multiple asset twins or system twins.
product developers The specialists that combine engineering, design, and planning skills to determine the goods that a manufacturer makes and sells. Product developers often play a big role in developing and improving products using digital twins.
prototypes A preliminary model of a product used to evaluate the performance of a design. A prototype can be tested safely and accurately using a digital twin.
real-time A way of describing a nearly instantaneous interval of time. Real-time insights are made possible because digital twins monitor the functions of a real-world asset as they occur.
rotor The spinning part of a machine such as a compressor or motor. A rotor is a type of component that can be monitored using a component twin.
sensors A device within a device that detects a physical stimulus and turns it into a signal that can be measured or recorded. Sensors in smart devices make it possible for machines to communicate digitally.
simulations A computerized re-creation of a physical space and activity. Simulations are used to duplicate real-world situations in order to evaluate behavior under real conditions.
simulator The computer program that generates the three-dimensional models of a physical asset. Simulators create a virtual word in which digital twins can be tested.
smart A device that can connect to the internet. Smart devices can track performance without human intervention.
Society of Manufacturing Engineers SME. A non-profit organization whose purpose is to educate and advance the manufacturing industry. The Society of Manufacturing Engineers introduced digital twins at a conference in 2012.
specifications A description of the essential physical and technical properties of a part or machine. Specifications outline important information necessary for creating an accurate digital model.
statistics The science of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing numerical data. Statistics is a highly specialized field necessary for determining how a part will behave under certain conditions.
system twin A type of digital twin that represents a collection of assets that function together throughout an entire facility or network. System twins connect data from interdependent equipment.
test data Information created by examining a part or its prototype to ensure it performs it intended function. Test data is necessary for creating an accurate digital model.
three-dimensional 3D. Having a length, depth, and width. Creating three-dimensional digital models of an asset is the first stage of a digital twin.
tolerance An acceptable deviation from a given part dimension that still allows a part to complete its intended function. Tolerances of parts can be virtually tested using a digital twin.
virtual Existing on or simulated within a computer program or system rather than physically existing. Virtual representations of real-world assets that can be monitored for performance are known as digital twins.
wear The gradual removal or decay of material caused by contact, corrosion, and friction. Wear can occur on many parts of a machine, such as the sensors and gears, causing the machine to malfunction.